Name: Richard Din (25)
Specialty: Biology Student
Date: May 4, 2012
Richard Din was allegedly killed by the germ Neisseria meningitidis which he was researching.
Title: California Lab Shut Down After Young Researcher Dies While On Personal Crusade To Find Vaccine For Meningitis
Date: May 4, 2012
Source: Daily Mail
Abstract: California officials have shut down a laboratory at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center on Thursday following the death of a young research associate that was apparently caused by a dangerous bacteria that he had been handling.
The San Francisco Chronicle reported that for the past several weeks, 25-year-old Richard Din, a biology major working with the Northern California Institute for Research and Education, had been researching the germ Neisseria meningitidis that can cause meningitis and bloodstream disease.
A state laboratory has confirmed that the rare strain that Din was studying — Serotype B — was the same one found in his body, according to the website Military.com.
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the disease caused by this particular strain is relatively uncommon in the United States, with only about 1,000 cases reported each year. In 2010, an estimated 75 people died from this type of meningococcal infection.
The germ causes septicemia and meningitis, officials said. Septicemia is an inflammation of the bloodstream that causes bleeding into the skin and organs, and is believed to be the cause of Din’s death.
It can be spread by sneezing, coughing or kissing. Meningitis is a bacterial infection of the thin layer of tissue surrounding the brain and spinal cord that can result in brain damage and death.
A VA official told the San Francisco Chronicle that Din, who shared an apartment with his girlfriend and several roommates in treasure Island, left work on Friday at 5pm in good health.
Two hours later, the researcher told his girlfriend that he was feeling ill with a headache, fever and chills, and went to bed.
Din woke up Saturday morning to discover a rash all over his body and asked his friends to take him to the VA hospital.
On the way there, the 25-year-old fell unconscious in the car and had no pulse on arrival. He was pronounced dead of multiple organ failure at around 2pm, according to Reuters.
‘In his case, the time between the onset of symptoms and death was 17 hours. That’s not uncommon with this disease,’ Dr Harry Lampiris, chief of infectious disease at the San Francisco VA, told the Chronicle.
While vaccination can generally prevent meningococcal disease, the vaccine is not effective against this particular strain of bacteria. Lampiris said Din had not been vaccinated, but as a precaution, all of his co-workers and close friends have since received the inoculation.
About 70 VA employees who came in contact with Din also have been given antibiotics to prevent possible infection.
The University of California at Berkeley graduate had been described as a polite and intelligent man whose interest in infectious disease was inspired by a family tragedy, according to former classmate Alex Peng.
‘It really troubles me thinking about it,’ Peng told the San Jose Mercury News. ‘It’s really sad to hear about him passing away after he wanted to follow that dream.’
The 25-year-old’s death is being investigated by the VA, the California Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the state Department of Public Health and the San Francisco Department of Public Health.
Officials have six months to conclude the probe into Din’s death, and if any workplace violations are found, the employer could face citations and fines, according to the San Francisco Examiner.
Lampiris says he is not sure how Din contracted the infection, given that his colleagues have described him as a very ‘fastidious’ and by-the-book researcher who had always followed safety procedures. Initial results of the investigation did not show any spills or equipment failure that could have caused the exposure.
Lampiris said he does not believe the case poses a high risk because the incubation period is generally three to five days. Symptoms of meningococcal disease can include high fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting, rash, confusion and severe sleepiness.
All local hospitals have been put on alert to watch out for anyone coming in with these symptoms and to immediately contact public health officials, CBS San Francisco has reported.
According to a 2005 study by the Journal of Clinical Microbiology cited by Military.com, 16 laboratory workers worldwide contracted meningitis between 1985 and 2001, including six in the US. Half of them died (Daily Mail, 2012).
Title: Researcher Believed To Be Killed By Lab Bacteria
Date: May 4, 2012
Source: Fox News
Abstract: A young research associate killed by a highly virulent strain of meningococcal disease is believed to have contracted the bacteria from the San Francisco lab where he was working on a vaccine against it, public health officials said on Thursday.
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention experts are seeking to confirm what they already suspect: that Richard Din, 25, died Saturday in an unusual case of a scientist being fatally infected with an agent from his own laboratory.
Tom Skinner, a CDC spokesman in Atlanta, said in a telephone interview the CDC in Atlanta would test a biopsy sample from Din and a sample of the laboratory pathogen he was working with to create fingerprints for each.
“If the fingerprints match, you know it’s highly likely he acquired the infection from working in the lab,” he said.
“Someone getting sick and dying from the organism they’re working with in the lab is exceedingly rare,” he added.
Meanwhile, dozens of people, including relatives, close friends, medical personnel who treated Din and some of his co-workers at the research department of the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center were being given antibiotics as a precaution.
Harry Lampiris, chief of infectious disease at the San Francisco VA, said it is likely Din died as a result of his work with Neisseria meningitidis, a strain of bacteria that causes meningococcal disease, which leads to meningitis and bloodstream infections.
“It’s our responsibility to assume it’s laboratory-associated until proven otherwise,” he told Reuters.
Since the 1960s, vaccines have been available for some strains of meningococcal disease. But scientists in the San Francisco lab have spent more than 20 years trying unsuccessfully to develop a vaccine against serogroup B, the strain that killed Din.
“It’s been like the Holy Grail to develop the vaccine against B,” Lampiris said.
Din died of multiple organ failure caused by meningococcal infection and septic shock, said Eileen Shields, a spokeswoman for the San Francisco Department of Public Health. He died less than a day after becoming ill.
The disease can come on quickly with symptoms including high fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting, rash, confusion and fatigue.
Lampiris said coworkers described Din, who began work at the lab in October, as “a very talented, hard-working and fastidious individual.”
“He was a very bright person who was probably at the beginning of a long research career,” he said.
Meningitis, an inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, commonly strikes infants and college students living in dormitories, Lampiris said. He said Din had not had contact with either group.
About 1,000 Americans each year suffer from meningococcal disease, and an estimated 10 to 15 percent die from it, Skinner said. He could not say how many of the cases resulted from serogroup B.
The California Division of Occupational Safety and Health is investigating the circumstances of Din’s death, along with its federal counterpart and the CDC, the city Public Health Department and the San Francisco VA (Fox News, 2012).
Name: Esther Fujimoto (49)
Specialty: Genetic Scientist
Date: August 21, 2011
COD: Killed by Boat
Esther Fujimoto was run down and killed by a boat while swimming across a lake in Utah. Fujimoto helped discover the breast cancer gene. A few local teens have been implicated in her death, but her case has not gone to trial.
Title: Esther Fujimoto Ex ’91
Date: Winter 2012
Source: University of Utah
Abstract: Esther Fujimoto ex’91, a University of Utah scientist who was on the team that helped discover a breast cancer gene, died August 21 after being hit by a power boat while swimming in Pineview Reservoir near Ogden. She was 49 (University of Utah, 2012).
Name: Jonathan B. Tucker (56)
Specialty: Biological & Chemical Weapons Expert
Date: July 31, 2011
Jonathan B. Tucker was killed in his Washington D.C. home on July 31, 2011. Tucker was a biological and chemical weapons expert who was awaiting a security clearance from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
Title: Bioweapons Expert Found Dead
Date: August 5, 2011
Source: Bio Prep Watch
Abstract: Jonathan B. Tucker, an expert on biological and chemical weapons, was found dead in his Washington, D.C., home on July 31.
The District’s Office of the Chief Medical Examiner said the cause of death was unknown, the Washington Post reported Thursday. Tucker, 56, was awaiting security clearance so that he could take a position in the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, UPI reports.
Tucker left his job of close to 15 years as a research fellow at the Monterey Institute’s James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. He had also previously worked as an editor at the magazine Scientific American. He was often used as a source by journalists writing about chemical and biological weapons.
“Jonathan was a rare breed in that he knew the science of the issue, which was really complicated, and also knew the policy side,” Paul Carroll, the program director at the Ploughshares Fund, said. “He was one of really a handful of people that could talk to both of these audiences, to both chemists and diplomats.”
Tucker was a weapons inspector for the United Nations in Iraq in 1995 and used his knowledge of the chemical weapons program of Saddam Hussein to advise the U.S. government before its invasion of Iraq in 2003.
Tucker graduated from Yale in 1975 with a biology degree and later earned a master’s degree from the University of Pennsylvania and a doctorate in non-proliferation studies from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (Bio Prep Watch, 2011).
Name: Gelareh Bagherzadeh (30)
Specialty: Genetic Molecular Bioologist
Date: January 17, 2011
COD: Gun Shot
Abstract: Gelareh Bagherzadeh was killed when she was shot in Houston, Texas. Detectives investigating the murder of the Iranian molecular scientist gunned down in her car as she drove home believe she was followed or that someone was waiting for her. Bagherzadeh was struck by a single bullet that entered the passenger door window as she talked on her cell phone with her ex-boyfriend. Bagherzadeh was a molecular genetic technology student at M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston and an active in promoting Iranian women’s rights.
Name: Zachary Greene Warfield (35)
Specialty: DARPA Engineer
Date: July 4, 2011
COD: Boat Accident
Abstract: Zachary Greene Warfield died in a boating accident on the Potomac River. Zack was a co-founder and a member of the Board of Directors for Omnis, Inc., a McLean, VA-based strategic consulting firm for the intelligence, defense and national security communities. He spearheaded major research initiatives and, in addition to helping steer the company, was directly involved in numerous projects, including analytic training and technology consulting. Prior to founding Omnis, Zack was an engineer and analyst for the U.S. Government and private industry. As a science and technology analyst, he assessed missile and space systems, managed technical contracts, and investigated Iraq’s Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) program as a member of the Iraq Survey Group, serving in Baghdad on two separate occasions. As an engineer, he worked on aerospace projects for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and private industry. Most notably, Zack designed critical guidance systems that ensured a successful landing for the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity; his name is inscribed on one of the rovers, and remains on Mars today.
Name: Jonathan Widom (55)
Specialty: DNA/Molecular Biosciences
Date: July 18, 2011
COD: Heart Attack
Abstract: Jonathan Widom died of an apparent heart attack. He was a professor of Molecular Biosciences in the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences at Northwestern University. Widom focused on how DNA is packaged into chromosomes — and the location of nucleosomes specifically. Colleagues said the work has had profound implications for how genes are able to be read in the cell and how mutations outside of the regions that encode proteins can lead to errors and disease.
Name: Fanjun Meng (29) & Chunyang Zhang (26)
Specialty: Anatomic Pathology/Parkinson’s Disease
Abstract: Fanjun Meng and Chunyang Zhang drowned in a Branson hotel swimming pool. Both were from China and working in the anatomic pathology lab at the University of Missouri-Columbia. Meng was a visiting scholar and his wife, Zhang, was a research specialist, according to information at the university’s website. Meng was working on research looking at a possible link between pesticides and Parkinson’s disease. Police said the investigation is ongoing as to the cause of the drowning but had said earlier there was no sign of foul play.
Name: Gregory Stone (54)
Specialty: Coastal Scientist
Date: February 17, 2011
COD: Unknown Illness
Abstract: Gregory Stoned, who was quoted extensively in many publications internationally after last year’s BP oil leak, died from an unknown illness. Stone also was the director of the renowned Wave-Current Information System. Stone quickly established himself as an internationally respected coastal scientist who produced cutting-edge research and attracted millions of dollars of research support to LSU. As part of his research, he and the CSI Field Support Group developed a series of offshore instrumented stations to monitor wind, waves and currents that impact the Louisiana coast. The system is used by many fishermen and scientists to monitor wind, waves and currents off the Louisiana coast. Stone was a great researcher, teacher, mentor and family man.
Name: Bradley C. Livezey (56)
Specialty: Avian Anatomist
Date: February 8, 2011
COD: Car Crash
Abstract: Bradley C. Livezey, who knew nearly everything about the songs of birds and was considered the top anatomist, died in a car crash. Livezey, curator of The Carnegie Museum of Natural History, never gave up researching unsolved mysteries of the world’s 20,000 or so avian species. Carnegie curator since 1993, Livezey oversaw a collection of nearly 195,000 specimens of birds, the country’s ninth largest. Livezey died in a two-car crash on Route 910, authorities said. An autopsy revealed he died from injuries to the head and trunk, the Allegheny County Medical Examiner’s Office said. Northern Regional Police are investigating.
Name: John (Jack) P. Wheeler III (66)
Specialty: Biological/Chemical Weapons
Date: December 30, 2010
Abstract: John (Jack) P. Wheeler III, last seen December 30, 2010, was found dead in a Delaware landfill. Wheeler fought to get the Vietnam Memorial built and served in two Bush administrations. His death has been ruled a homicide by Newark, Delaware, police. Wheeler graduated from West Point in 1966, and had a law degree from Yale and a business degree from Harvard. His military career included serving in the office of the Secretary of Defense and writing a manual on the effectiveness of biological and chemical weapons, which recommended that the United States not use biological weapons.
Name: Mark A. Smith (45)
Specialty: Alzheimer’s Disease
Date: November 15, 2010
COD: Hit & Run
Abstract: Mark A. Smith, a renowned Alzheimer’s disease researcher, died after being hit by a car in Ohio. Smith was a pathology professor at Case Western Reserve University and director of basic science research at the university’s memory and cognition center. He also was executive director of the American Aging Association and co-editor-in-chief of the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. He is listed as the No. 3 “most prolific” Alzheimer’s disease researcher, with 405 papers written, by the international medical Journal.
Name: Chitra Chauhan (33)
Specialty: Molecular Biologist/Mosquitoes
Date: November 15, 2010
COD: Cyanide Suicide
Abstract: Chitra Chauhan was found dead in an apparent suicide by cyanide at a Temple Terrace hotel, police said. Chauhan left a suicide note saying she used cyanide. Hazmat team officials said the cyanide was found only in granular form, meaning it was not considered dangerous outside of the room it was found in. The chemical is considered more dangerous in a liquid or gas form. Potassium Cyanide, the apparent cause of death, is a chemical commonly used by universities in teaching chemistry and conducting research, but it was not used in the research projects she was working on. Chauhan, a molecular biologist, was a post-doctoral researcher in the Global Health department in the College of Public Health. She earned her doctorate from the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology in New Delhi, India, in 2005, then studied mosquitoes and disease transmission at the University of Notre Dame.
Name: Franco Cerrina (62)
Specialty: DNA Microarray Technology
Date: July 12, 2010
Abstract: Franco Cerrina was found dead in a lab at BU’s Photonics Center on a Monday morning. The cause of death is not yet known, but police have ruled out homicide. Cerrina joined the faculty of BU in 2008 after spending 24 years on the faculty at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He co-founded five companies, including NimbleGen Systems, Genetic Assemblies (merged with Codon Devices in 2006), Codon Devices, Biolitho, and Gen9, according to Nanowerk News. NimbleGen, a Madison, WI-based provider of DNA microarray technology, was sold to Basel, Switzerland-based Roche in 2007 for $272.5 million. Cerrina, chairman of the electrical and computer engineering department, came to BU two years ago from the University of Wisconsin at Madison as a leading scholar in optics, lithography, and nanotechnology, according to his biography on the university website. The scholar was responsible for establishing a new laboratory in the Photonics Center.
Name: Vajinder Toor (34)
Date: April 26, 2010
COD: Murder/Gun Shot
Abstract: Vajinder Toor was shot and killed outside his home in Branford, Connecticut. Toor worked at Kingsbrook Jewish Medical Center in New York before joining Yale.
Name: Joseph Morrissey (46)
Date: April 6, 2010
Abstract: Joseph Morrissey died as a result of an alleged home invasion. Although the cause of death was first identified as a gunshot wound, the autopsy revealed that the professor died from a stab wound. Morrissey joined NSU in May 2009 as an associate professor and taught one elective class on immunopharmacology in the College of Pharmacy.
Name: Maria Ragland Davis (52)
Specialty: Plant pathology & Biotechnology
Date: February 13, 2010
Abstract: Maria Ragland Davis died at the hand of neurobiologist Amy Bishop. Her background was in chemical engineering and biochemistry, and she specialized in plant pathology and biotechnology applications. She had a doctorate in biochemistry and had worked as a postdoctoral research fellow at the Monsanto Company in St. Louis. She was hired at the University of Alabama after a seven-year stint as a senior scientist in the plant-science department at Research Genetics Inc. (later Invitrogen), also in Huntsville.
Name: Gopi K. Podila (54)
Specialty: Bioenergy & Functional Genomics
Date: February 13, 2010
Abstract: Gopi K. Podila died at the hand of neurobiologist Amy Bishop. He was an Indian American biologist, noted academician, and faculty member at the University of Alabama in Huntsville. He listed his research interests as engineering tree biomass for bioenergy, functional genomics of plant-microbe interactions, plant molecular biology and biotechnology. In particular, Padila studied genes that regulate growth in fast growing trees, especially poplar and aspen. He has advocated prospective use of fast growing trees and grasses as an alternative to corn sources for producing ethanol.
Name: Adriel D. Johnson Sr. (52)
Specialty: Gastrointestinal Physiology
Date: February 13, 2010
Abstract: Adriel D. Johnson Sr. died at the hand of neurobiologist Amy Bishop. His research involved aspects of gastrointestinal physiology specifically pancreatic function in vertebrates.
Name: Keith Fagnou (38)
Specialty: Molecular Research
Date: November 11, 2009
Abstract: Keith Fagnou allegedly died as a result of H1N1. His research focused on improving the preparation of complex molecules for petrochemical, pharmaceutical or industrial uses. Keith’s advanced and out–of-the-box thinking overturned prior ideas of what is possible in the chemistry field.
Name: Stephen Lagakos (63)
Date: October 12, 2009
COD: Car Crash
Abstract: Stephen Lagakos was killed in a car crash along with his wife Regina and his mother Helen. Lagakos centered his efforts on several fronts in the fight against AIDS particularly how and when HIV-infected women transmitted the virus to their children. In addition, he developed sophisticated methods to improve the accuracy of estimated HIV incidence rates. He also contributed to broadening access to antiretroviral drugs to people in developing countries.
Name: Malcolm Casadaban (60)
Specialty: Molecular Genetics
Date: September 13, 2009
Abstract: Malcolm Casadaband was as a renowned molecular geneticist with a passion for new research. He had been working to develop an even stronger vaccine for the plague, but allegedly died of plague prior to bringing his vaccine to market. The medical center says the plague bacteria he worked with was a weakened strain that isn’t known to cause illness in healthy adults. The strain was approved by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for laboratory studies.
Title: Plague Samples Suspected In Scientist Death
Date: September 21, 2009
Source: Science Mag
Abstract: An autopsy last week revealed that a geneticist who died mysteriously might have succumbed to the plague. Malcolm Casadaban, 60, studied a weakened and reportedly benign form of the bacteria that causes plague, Yersinia pestis, in his lab at the University of Chicago. Casadaban died Sunday, 13 September, and an autopsy report 5 days later indicated high levels of Y. pestis in his blood. No other cause of death was apparent, the university said. A team of scientists at the university, with support from local health officials and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, is investigating the matter. So far, no one in contact with Casadaban has shown plague symptoms. The investigators are focusing on whether the strain Casadaban worked on was different than other benign strains of the bacterium and whether he had any inborn susceptibility to the microbe. Results are expected in a few weeks (Science Mag, 2009).
Title: Another Dead Microbiologist – The Coming Plague
Date: September 23, 2009
Source: ABC 7 News
Title: Researcher’s Death From Plague Prompts CDC Warning
Date: February 24, 2011
Source: My Health News
Abstract: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is reminding laboratory workers to be diligent about wearing protective gear, after it found that an Illinois researcher died in 2009 from exposure to plague-causing bacteria.
The 60-year-old researcher, a university employee, had been working with a strain of the bacteria Yersinia pestis. He died of cardiac arrest shortly after going to the hospital for what appeared to be flu symptoms, the CDC said in a report released today (Feb. 24).
After determining the cause of death, health agencies and the university began a safety investigation and learned that the man had inconsistently complied with the laboratory policy to wear gloves while handling the bacterial cultures, the CDC report said.
However, experts at the CDC did not rule out that the researcher could have been infected by the bacteria elsewhere on his skin or mucous membranes, such as his mouth or nose.
The CDC report did not identify the man or his university. According to a report from Chicago television station WLS in 2009, he was Malcolm Casadaban, a longtime professor of molecular genetics at the University of Chicago. His family said Casadaban had been seeking to develop a plague vaccine, and was working with a weakened strain of the bacteria.
The CDC report said he had hemochromatosis, a condition in which too much iron is absorbed into body tissues from foods in the gastrointestinal tract. Because Y. pestis bacteria are naturally iron-deficient, the extra iron in the man may have fed the bacteria and caused them to become virulent, the report said.
The researcher sought care from a physician Sept. 10, 2009, six days after he had last worked in the lab. But that doctor thought the problem was a respiratory infection or the flu, and referred him to an emergency department, the report said.
Three days later the researcher was brought by ambulance to an emergency department because of fever, cough, and worsening of his shortness of breath. He died there after suffering septic shock and cardiac arrest, the report said.
Blood tests later revealed he was infected with the bacteria . The Chicago Department of Public Health was then notified.
Before then, the last known laboratory-acquired infection with Y. pestis bacteria in the United States occurred in 1959, the CDC report said. That person, who inhaled the bacteria, did not die (My Health News, 2011).
Name: August “Gus” Watanabe (67)
Specialty: Former Eli Lilly & Co. Executive
Date: June 9, 2009
COD: Suicide/Murder/Gun Shot
Abstract: August “Gus” Watanabe was found dead outside a cabin in Brown County. Friends discovered the body, a .38-caliber handgun and a three-page note at the scene. Friends allegedly said he had been depressed following the death last month of his daughter Nan Reiko Watanabe Lewis. She died at age 44 while recovering from elective surgery. Watanabe was one of the five highest-paid officers of Indianapolis pharmaceutical maker Eli Lilly and Co. when he retired in 2003.
Name: Caroline Coffey (28)
Date: June 3, 2009
COD: Murder/Throat Slashed
Abstract: Caroline Coffey died from massive cuts to her throat. Hikers found the body of the Cornell Univ. post-doctoral bio-medicine researcher along a wooded trail in the park, just outside Ithaca, N.Y., where the Ivy League school is located. Her husband was hospitalized under guard after a police chase and their apartment was set on fire.
Name: Nasser Talebzadeh Ordoubadi (53)
Specialty: Bioweapon Antitoxin
Date: February 14, 2009
COD: Unknown/Suspicious Causes
Abstract: Nasser Talebzadeh Ordoubadi died of “suspicious” causes. Dr. Noah (formerly Nasser Talebzadeh Ordoubadi) is described in his American biography as a pioneer of Mind-Body-Quantum medicine who lectured in five countries and ran a successful health care center General Medical Clinics Inc. in King County, Washington for 15 years after suffering a heart attack in 1989. Among his notable accomplishments was discovering an antitoxin treatment for bioweapons.
Title: Iranian Bioweapon Researcher Nasser Talebzadeh Ordoubadi Dies Suspiciously In The US
Date: Feb 18, 2009
Source: Press TV
Abstract: A US-based Iranian doctor working to discover an antitoxin therapy for biological weapons has purportedly died a “suspicious death.”
One of the leading bioweapon researchers and a regular keynote speaker at international conferences, Dr. Nasser Talebzadeh Ordoubadi died on Saturday in what his doctors described as a “suspicious death”.
Media reports have linked Dr. Talebzadeh Ordoubadi’s mysterious death to his notable accomplishments in discovering an antitoxin treatment for bioweapons.
The use of biological and chemical weapons — which is considered illegal under The Hague convention on rules of warfare — is feared by many experts more than the use of nuclear weapons.
Biological weapons can kill, incapacitate, or seriously impede an individual as well as entire cities or places where they are used.
While there are antibiotic and penicillin treatments for different types of bioweapons, some of them such as Botulism and Ricin still remain without any antitoxin or vaccine to cure those subjected to the poisonous weapon.
According to Tabnak, Dr. Talebzadeh’s achievements in finding a cure to bioweapons had made him the target of various accusations from the government of the United States — one of the possessors of biological weapons — since 1992.
In 2000, the Iranian doctor was sentenced to 35 months in prison on charges of health care and mail fraud under the new HIPAA regulations (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996).
His jail sentence, which prompted him to change his name to Noah McKay, came after years of government attempts to level various accusations against him.
The charges, which were never substantiated, proven or confirmed, included “money laundering, funding Middle Eastern terrorists, and connections to the Russian mafia in Seattle”.
While serving in the federal prison camp in Sheridan, Oregon, he told one of his lawyers “my life is in danger and I should change my name and request transfer to another prison” (Press TV, 2009).
Name: Bruce Edwards Ivins (62)
Specialty: Anthrax/Vaccine Technology
Date: July 29, 2008
Abstract: Bruce Edwards Ivins died of an alleged drug overdose. Ivins allegedly committed suicide prior to formal charges being filed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation for his alleged criminal connection to the 9/11 anthrax attacks. Ivins was likely to be scapegoated for the attacks which resulted in the deaths of five persons and the injury of dozens of others. The attacks included the mailings of several anonymous letters to members of Congress and members of the media in September and October, 2001. The letters in question allegedly contained Bacillus anthracis, commonly referred to as anthrax. Ivins was a coinventor on two US patents for anthrax vaccine technology.
Name: Laurent Bonomo (23) & Gabriel Ferez (23)
Specialty: Infectious Disease/Eco Friendly Fuels
Date: July 3, 2008
Abstract: Laurent Bonomo and Gabriel Ferez, both died after being bound, gagged, stabbed and set alight. Laurent, a student in the proteins that cause infectious disease, had been stabbed 196 times with half of them being administered to his back after he was dead. Gabriel, who hoped to become an expert in ecofriendly fuels, suffered 47 separate injuries.