Tag Archives: Chernobyl disaster

” Do not COMPARE Fukushima To Chernobyl”

 

SOURCE

 

It’s time to revise the way nuclear incidents are rated. Failure to do so plays into the hands of anti-nuclear propagandists

EVERYBODY who gets cancer in Japan over the next 40 years will no doubt blame their misfortune on radiation from Fukushima Daiichi. This will probably be the case for many other diseases too, ranging from heart failure to nose bleeds – as happened after the catastrophic explosion in 1986 at Chernobyl, a Soviet nuclear power station in Ukraine. This would be entirely understandable but will have no basis in science.

On 12 April 2011, a month after the tsunami struck, Japan’s Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency announced that it was raising the grading of the Fukushima Daiichi event from 5 to 7 – the highest level on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). This helped to create the misleading impression that the event was as bad as Chernobyl, and has since been exploited in anti-nuclear propaganda despite the fact that there is no possibility that the physical health consequences of Fukushima Daiichi will be anywhere near as bad as those of Chernobyl.

As far as anyone knows, no member of the public received a significant dose of radiation attributable to the Fukushima Daiichi reactor emergency and no physical health effects of radiation should be expected.

The INES, introduced by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1990, rates nuclear incidents and accidents on a scale that runs from 0 to 7. It is based on off-site and on-site effects, and on the degradation of the nuclear plant’s “defence in depth”. Before Fukushima Daiichi, only one accident – Chernobyl – had been rated level 7.

Chernobyl was the worst that could happen. Safety and protection systems failed and there was a full core meltdown in a reactor that had no containment. In the “defence in depth” of nuclear power plants outside the former USSR, containment is an essential engineered safety feature.

The figures tell a story: 237 Chernobyl workers were taken to hospital with suspected acute radiation sickness; 134 of these cases were confirmed; 28 were fatal; about 20 other workers have since died from illnesses considered to have been caused or aggravated by radiation exposure; two workers died from other causes at the time of the accident and another disappeared – presumed dead.

On top of that, it has been estimated that about 4000 people will die (or may already have died) from radiation-induced cancer, including workers exposed directly to radiation, and members of the public exposed to the huge release of radioactive material from the reactor. About 4000 cases of thyroid cancer, which typically kills about 5 per cent of people who get it, have been attributed to inhalation and ingestion of radioactive iodine by children.

At Fukushima Daiichi, the reactors shut down safely when struck by the magnitude-9 Tohoku earthquake, the fourth largest ever recorded. But problems arose after they were inundated by a much larger tsunami than had been anticipated when the nuclear plant was designed. This caused the loss of all power on the site so that cooling systems failed and some of the reactor cores overheated. Radioactive fission products were released and hydrogen was generated by chemical reaction. The reactor containments were partially effective, although they were damaged by hydrogen explosions and possibly by molten fuel.

Again, the casualty figures tell their own story. Severe potential hazards did exist on the reactor sites because of high levels of radiation, but health controls were mainly effective. There were no deaths attributable to radiation. Two workers received burns from beta radiation. They were discharged from hospital after two days. Two workers incurred high internal radiation exposure from inhaling iodine-131, which gives them a significant risk of developing thyroid cancer.

Doses incurred by about 100 other workers have been high enough to cause a small risk of developing cancer after 20 or more years. But the risk is very small indeed. About 25 per cent of the population dies from cancer whether accidentally exposed to radiation or not. This rate might be increased by an additional one or two per cent among the exposed workers.

What is more, exposures to radiation were nowhere near high enough to cause acute radiation sickness. Importantly, there have been no radiation injuries to children or to other members of the public.

The INES was intended to aid public understanding of nuclear safety. In fact, it has caused more confusion. It has also probably added to the mental anguish of the Japanese people.

The accident at Fukushima Daiichi was moved to the top of the scale a month after the tsunami for technical reasons, when the estimate of radioactive material released exceeded the International Atomic Energy Agency’s criterion for level 7. However, the amount of iodine-131 escaping from all the reactors at Fukushima Daiichi was less than 10 per cent of the amount released at Chernobyl, and the release of caesium-137, the next most important fission product, was less than 15 per cent of the Chernobyl total.

Unless it is to be scrapped entirely, the INES should be substantially modified. One possibility is to divide level 7 into several sub-levels. But perhaps a better option might be to start again. A scale based on health effects would mean a lot more to non-specialists than the technical and scientific terminology that is used at present.

 

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Fukushima Reactor radiation reached Europe and the MSM never said a word

 

Cover up of Japan Fukushima Nuclear Radiation Fallout Forecasts Exposed!

Source

I previously reported on the steady concentrated stream of Nuclear radioactive fallout heading toward the US and Canada. In that post I pointed out that several censored radiation forecasts have been found but were never released to the public.

We now have for the first time a side by side comparison of two radiation fallout forecasts. On the left is the censored version released to the public downplaying the levels of radiation spreading around the world. On the right is the same uncensored forecast.

Left: Censored Fallout Forecast Released To Public — Right: Uncensored Forecast Hidden From Public

If you have doubt that the censored version is the real forecast then consider this: Notice the censored version doesn’t show radiation hitting Europe.

Now checkout this article from the Independent reporting that the nuclear fallout has hit Europe.

Reactor radiation reaches Europe

AP Wednesday, 23 March 2011

A plume from the Fukushima Dai-ichi complex carrying trace amounts of radioactive iodine has been detected in Iceland, the country’s Radiation Safety Authority said.

However, it added, the concentration was “less than a millionth” of what was found in European countries in the wake of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster that spewed radiation over a large distance.

Recollections of the accident’s aftermath continue to haunt many in European, putting them on edge as they watch the Japanese nuclear crisis unfold.

“We thus conclude that there is no reason to worry about radioactivity levels in Iceland, nor anywhere in Europe, resulting from the nuclear accident in Japan,” said Sigurdur Emil Palsson, head of emergency planning.

Elsewhere, French authorities said very weakly contaminated air is expected to reach France today while Germany’s Federal Office for Radiation Protection said if and when radiation arrived it would be in marginal amounts that would pose neither a risk to humans or the environment.

“The measurements will also be much lower that those after the Chernobyl disaster,” it said.

[…]

Source: The Independent

here are the “public” forecasts… which show “low” levels of Cesium-137 …

http://transport.nilu.no/products/fukushima?searchterm=fuk

however…

This site was sent to me, and it clearly shows the hidden (not shown to public) forecasts! In these shots, we see VERY high levels of Cesium-137 making its way across the pacific to the USA and Canada.

http://squid.nilu.no/~burkhart/sharing/MOVIES/?C=M;O=D

http://squid.nilu.no/~burkhart/sharing/

—————-

http://eurdeppub.jrc.it/eurdeppub/home.aspx#

http://www.csn.es/index.php?option=com_maps&view=mappoints&Itemid=32

http://www.jaif.or.jp/english/

http://www.rivm.nl/milieuportaal/dossier/meetnetten/radioactiviteit/resultaten/

http://www.radiationnetwork.com/

http://www.blackcatsystems.com/RadMap/map.html

http://www.epa.gov (click on radiation update)

http://www.irsn.fr/EN/Pages/home.aspx

http://www.nucleartourist.com/

http://www.stuk.fi/index_en.html

http://www.mext.go.jp/english/radioactivity_level/detail/1303962.htm

http://www.nisa.meti.go.jp/english/index.html

http://www.rivm.nl/milieuportaal/dossier/meetnetten/radioactiviteit/resultaten/

http://www.yle.fi/tekstitv/html/P867_02.html

http://www.mapion.co.jp/topics/genpatu/

http://strahlenbelastung.wo-wann-wer.de/

dutch radiation monitoring:

http://www.rivm.nl/milieuportaal/dossier/meetnetten/radioactiviteit/resultaten/

swiss radiation monitoring:

https://www.naz.ch/en/aktuell/zeitverlaeufe.html

Finland radiation monitoring:

http://www.yle.fi/tekstitv/html/P160_01.html

http://www.yle.fi/tekstitv/html/P867_02.html

French radiation monitoring: (thanks to youtube user: RehKurts ! )

http://sws.irsn.fr/sws/mesure/index

http://www.irsn.fr/FR/Documents/france.htm

jet stream forecasting:

http://squall.sfsu.edu/crws/jetstream.html

http://arctic.atmos.uiuc.edu/CT/animate.arctic.color.0.html

http://nowcoast.noaa.gov/

http://www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/tropicalwx/satpix/nwpac_ir4_loop.php

http://www.stormsurfing.com/cgi/display_alt.cgi?a=glob_250

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The biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass bluebutterfly

 

Massive amount of radioactive materials were released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) to environment due to the Great East Japan Earthquake
1–6
. However, precise information on exactly what occurred and on what is still ongoing is yet to be established
7,8
. This lack of information raises serious concerns about biological influences on living organisms that could ultimately produce long-term destruction of ecosystems and cause chronic diseases. Prompt and reliable evaluation of the biological influences of the artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP is lacking, and only a few studies have been performed to date
9,10
. In the case of the Chernobyl accident, changes in species composition and phenotypic ration in animals
11–17
and an increase in the incidence of thyroid and lymph cancers in humans
18
have been reported. Similarly, an increase in the incidence of cancers has been reported for atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan
19
. However, the effects of low-dose radiation exposure on animals, including humans, are still a matter of debate
20–22
despite the relatively rigorous documentation of physiological damage to animals from external high-dose radiation exposure. Moreover, one of the greatest concerns is the possible inheritance of the adverse effects of exposure by the offspring of the exposed individuals. However, experimental demonstration of genetic mutations in the germ-line cells that are inherited by the offspring of radiation-exposed parents has been scarce, although the germ-line damage was shown in barn swallows
23

 


Iodine-131 on the rise again in Japan.-The Report [pdf]

 

A recent article published in the Geochemical Journal by Miyake et al. has found that there was 31.6 times as much iodine-129 than iodine-131 released in the early days of the Fukushima catastrophe. Iodine-129 is a long-lived radionuclide with a half-life of 15.7 million years. So it doesn’t go away.

The EPA document “Health Risks from Low-Level Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides”

indicates the mortality risk for I-129 is about 3 times that of I-131. This is mainly from thyroid cancer. European nuclear reprocessing plants (mainly La Hague) release a huge amount of I-129 – they released around 1,800 times as much of it as Chernobyl did (up to the year 2000). Gee, I wonder why there is a worldwide epidemic of thyroid cancer.

 


You Won't be Liking that : the Fukushima Radiation Report 2012

 

Thyroid Examination by Fukushima Prefecture

Fukushima prefecture has been conducting “Prefecture Health Management Survey” including estimation of external radiation exposure dose, thyroid examination, basic medical examination, psychological questionnaire, survey of pregnant women and women with babies.

The result of the initial round of preliminary thyroid examination of 38,114 children, out of approximately 360,000 eligible children, was released in the sixth report of Fukushima Prefecture Health Management Survey on April 26, 2012.

http://www.pref.fukushima.jp/imu/kenkoukanri/240426shiryou.pdf

Further analysis of the same result from these 38,114 children was published in the seventh report of Fukushima Prefecture Health Management Survey on June 12, 2012.

http://www.pref.fukushima.jp/imu/kenkoukanri/240612shiryou.pdf

Please refer to the previous article in regards to the letter from Shunichi Yamashita to Japan Thyroid Association members, dated January 16, 2012, asking them to adhere to the guidelines set by Fukushima University Medical School in managing thyroid abnormalities.

http://fukushimavoice-eng.blogspot.com/2012/05/fukushima-childrens-thyroid-examination.html

Below is the straight translation of the thyroid examination section of the Fukushima Prefecture Health Management Survey.

********************************************************************************************************

The Sixth Report of Fukushima Prefecture Health Management Survey
April 26, 2012

Implementation status for “thyroid examination” in Prefecture Health Management Survey

1. Purpose of survey

The health effects from Tokyo Electric Company Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident due to East Japan Great Earthquake are considered to be extremely unlikely, considering the current radiation levels. However, Chernobyl nuclear accident revealed pediatric thyroid cancer from internal radiation exposure due to radioactive iodine.
Thus, children’s health is to be watched on a long-term basis. Thyroid examination was implemented in October 2011 to assess the current thyroid conditions to track children’s lifetime health and to relieve children and parents of worries.

2. Subjects

All Fukushima residents (including those who evacuated out of Fukushima) who were ages 0 to 18 on March 11, 2011. Approximately 360,000 residents. In concrete terms it covers all Fukushima prefecture residents (including those who evacuated out of Fukushima) who were born between April 2, 1992 and April 1, 2011.

3. Implementation plan details

(1) Method:

If thyroid mass (nodular lesion) is detected upon thyroid ultrasound examination, secondary examination (more detailed ultrasound examination, blood test, urine test, and biopsy if needed) at Fukushima University Medical School Hospital.

(2) Implementation schedule:

Preliminary examination (examination for assessment of current status) will be performed on all eligible residents from October 2011 to March 2014.
In addition, after April 2014, standard examination will be done every two years up to age 20 and every five years after age 20, watching over the health of residents for the remainder of their lives.
Also the target group will be expanded to include those who were born before April 1, 2012.

4. Fiscal Year 2011 Implementation status

(1) Subjects:

47,766 residents from evacuated areas specified by the government, including Tamura-city, Minamisoma-city, Date-city, Kawamata-machi, Hirono-machi, Naraha-machi, Tomioka-machi, Kawauchi-mura, Okuma-machi, Futaba-machi, Namie-machi, Katsurao-mura, and Iitate-mura.

(2) Implementation status:

Primary examination: Examination was started at Fukushima University Medical School Hospital on October 9, 2011. Examination was then performed off-site at public facilities in Kawamata-machi, Minamisoma-city, and other places. By the end of fiscal year 2011 (the end of March 2011), 38,114 residents (79.8% of eligible residents) were examined.

Reporting of primary examination result: Assessment Committee established within Fukushima University Medical School evaluated and analyzed the ultrasound images. As for those who received examination within fiscal year 2011 have already received the results by mail.

Secondary examination: For those requiring secondary examination, Fukushima University Medical School officially notified them of the date, time and place of the examination. Specialists have been conducting secondary examination since March 2012 at Fukushima University Medical School Hospital. In regards to the result of the secondary examination, subjects were asked to come back to the hospital one to two weeks later to have the specialists explain the result in person. By this time (April 12, 2012), 14 have undergone secondary examination and 6 have received the result.

(3) Major efforts made to implement examination:

In fiscal year 2011, the following efforts were made in implementing the examination. They were intended to take into consideration the convenience of examination subjects and structure more effective and efficient examination system, so that as many residents could receive examination as possible.

[1] Consideration in securing examination opportunities for subjects

For those not examined, effort was made to secure examination opportunities as much as possible by re-sending new examination schedule.
Examination was performed at locations (16 locations in Fukushima prefecture not including schools) as close to evacuation locations as possible.
For school-age children and older students, examination was performed at their schools.
At the examination site, a fast examination process was made possible by designing an integrated system including reception, actual examination (including explanation) and saving of ultrasound images.
Implementation of examination was made possible for the age 0 to 5 group, which had been anticipated to be difficult examination subjects.

[2] Securing the quality of the examination

Support of thyroid specialists in and outside Fukushima prefecture was obtained by widely publicizing the thyroid examination and asking for cooperation through Japan Thyroid Association, Japan Association of Endocrine Surgeons, Japan Society of Thyroid Surgery, The Japanese Society for Pediatric Endocrinology, The Japan Society of Ultrasonics in Medicine, Japanese Society of Sonographers, and The Japan Association of Breast and Thyroid Sonology.
Quality of examination over a certain standard was secured by direct involvement of thyroid specialists in the examination. Also an effort was made to secure qualified personnel through direct instruction by the said specialists.

*As many as 61 specialists outside of Fukushima University Medical School assisted with examination multiple times during the fiscal year 2011.

[3] Establishing the base for thyroid examination within Fukushima prefecture

In order to solidify the thyroid examination system within Fukushima prefecture, a thyroid examination workshop was held in Fukushima-city on March 4 for physicians and technicians.

5. Fiscal year 2012 implementation plan (proposal)

In fiscal year 2012, examination will be implemented in a planned, effective and efficient manner for subjects living in areas other than the government-specified evacuation areas. In addition, medical facilities outside Fukushima prefecture will be certified to provide thyroid examination so that those who evacuated out of Fukushima will be able to receive the examination in relocated areas.

Summary of examination schedule and target groups:

First examination:

Initial preliminary examination
Date: October 2011 to November 2011
Location: Fukushima University Medical School
Target group: Part of subjects from planned evacuation areas (Yamakiya region of Kawamata-machi, Namie-machi and Iitate-mura)

All prefecture preliminary examination
Date: November 2011 to March 2014
Location: Facilities such as health centers, community centers and schools (Performed by physicians from Fukushima University Medical School and also with cooperation of physicians in and outside Fukushima prefecture.)
Target group: Unexamined residents from planned evacuation areas and all other subjects.

Second examination and beyond:

All prefecture standard examination
Date: April 2014 –
Location: Examination centers in Fukushima prefecture and medical facilities outside Fukushima prefecture.
Target group: All subjects..
*Every two years up to age 20 and every 5 years after age 20.

Fiscal Year 2011 Thyroid Examination Implementation Status
(as of the end of March, 2012)

In the fiscal year 2011, examination was done in residents of evacuated areas.
In the examination period from October 2011 through March 2012, 79.8% (38,114) of eligible residents had thyroid examinations.

Captions for the table from left to right:
Town/village name, number of subjects (A), number of examined residents (B), % examined (B/A), breakdown by age group, number of examined residents living outside Fukushima (C), % out-of-prefecture residents examined (C/B).

Town/Village names from top to bottom: Tamura-city, Minamisoma-city, Date-city, Kawamata-machi, Hirono-machi, Naraha-machi, Tomioka-machi, Kawauchi-mura, Okuma-machi, Futaba-machi, Namie-machi, Katsurao-mura, Iitate-mura.

Fiscal Year 2011 Thyroid Examination Summary (as of the end of March, 2012)

Total Number of children tested: 38,114

Assessment Assessment result definition Number %
results
A (A1) No nodules or cysts     24,468   64.2%
(A2) Nodules smaller than 5.0 mm 13.460 35.3%
or cysts smaller than 20.0 mm
B Nodules larger than 5.1 mm 186 0.5%
or cysts larger than 20.0 mm
C Immediate need for secondary 0 0.0%
examination

Explanation for assessment results:

A1 and A2 will be followed until the next examination (after 2014)
B and C will have secondary examination (They will be notified of date and place.)

*In A2, those in need of secondary examination will be categorized in B.

Summary:
Assessment results Number %
Nodules >5.1 mm 184 0.48% total nodules
<5.0 mm 202 0.53% 386(1.0%) Cysts >20.1 mm 1 0.003% total cysts
<20.0 mm 13,379 35.10% 13,380 (35.1%)

Some cases had both nodules and cysts.

***************************************************************************************************

The Seventh Report of Fukushima Prefecture Health Management Survey
June 12, 2012

Fiscal Year 2012 Thyroid Examination Implementation Status (as of June 8, 2012)

Thyroid examination (primary examination) implementation summary for subjects in Fukushima-city

Beginning May 14, 2012, subjects in Fukushima-city began receiving thyroid examination.
Subjects in Fukushima-city will have thyroid examination until August 31, 2012.
In Fukushima-city, thyroid examinations will be held at elementary and junior high schools, Fukushima-city Active Senior Center (AOZ), National Sports Festival of Japan Memorial Gymnasium, and Fukushima Youth Hall.
In the 20-day implementation period up to June 8, 2012, 11,751 out of expected 13,304 actually received the examination.
Of 53,619 subjects in Fukushima-city, 45,331 (84.5%) already expressed interest in receiving thyroid examination by June 8. (Based on the consent form submission as of June 8)

Primary thyroid examination implementation status (bottom table)

Captions from left to right: number of subjects (A), number of examined residents (B), % examined (B/A), breakdown by age group for B, out-of-prefecture residents in B (C), % of out-of-prefecture residents examined (C/B)

Captions from top to bottom: H24 (Heisei 24 = 2012) Fukushima city, examination status as of June 8, H24 (2012) outside Fukushima-city, examination implemented in H23 (Fiscal year 2011)

*The”outside Fukushima-city” category includes subjects from Minamisoma-city, Date-city, Kawamata-machi, Naraha-machi, Tomioka-machi, Okuma-machi, Futaba-machi, Namie-machi and Iitate-mura.

**************************************************************************************************
Fiscal Year 2011 Thyroid Examination Summary (as of the end of March, 2012)
For original document, please refer to this link so that you may zoom in.
https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B68f83tqq7Qud05vOWNGaXpkUU0/edit
(Page 12 of the report, which is page 15 of the actual document.)

Note that the first table in this summary is basically the same as one from the 6th report except the number with cysts smaller than 20.0 mm is 13,383 instead of 13,379 for some reason.

Subsequent tables and graphs show more detailed information of the data reported in the 6th report, such as the breakdown by sex, age, and size of nodules and cysts.

otal Number of children tested: 38,114

Assessment Assessment result definition Number %
results
A (A1) No nodules or cysts 24,468 64.2%
(A2) Nodules smaller than 5.0 mm 13.460 35.3%
or cysts smaller than 20.0 mm
B Nodules larger than 5.1 mm 186 0.5%
or cysts larger than 20.0 mm
C Immediate need for secondary 0 0.0%
examination

Explanation for assessment results:

A1 and A2 will be followed until the next examination (after 2014)
B and C will have secondary examination (They will be notified of date and place.)

*In A2, those in need of secondary examination will be categorized in B.

Summary:
Assessment results Number %
Nodules >5.1 mm 184 0.48% total nodules
<5.0 mm 202 0.53% 386 (1.0%) Cysts >20.1 mm 1 0.003% total with cysts
<20.0 mm 13,379 35.10% 13,380 (35.1%)

Some cases had both nodules and cysts.

***************************************************************************************************

Fiscal year 2011 thyroid examination summary (as of the end of March 2012)
For original document, please refer to this link so that you may zoom in.
https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B68f83tqq7Qud05vOWNGaXpkUU0/edit
(Page 13 of the report, which is page 16 of the actual document.)

1. Assessment status
Captions from left to right: age groups, A1, A2, B, C, Total (Each assessment result subdivided into male/female/total.)
Captions from top to bottom on left: age groups, 0-5 years, 6-10 years, 11-15 years, over 16 years
2. Breakdown by sex and age groups
Left bar graph: male
Right bar graph: female

blue=A1, red=A2, green=B, purple=C

Following data shows the thyroid examination subjects who had nodules in the fiscal year 2011 examination.
For original document, please refer to this link so that you may zoom in.
https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B68f83tqq7Qud05vOWNGaXpkUU0/edit
(Page 14 of the report, which is page 17 of the actual document.)

The table on bottom left shows breakdown by size of nodules and sex.

Left column shows size.

Of 38,114 examined, 37,729 (19,036 boys and 18,693 girls) had no nodules.
201 had nodules graded A2, smaller than 5.0 mm.
184 had nodules graded B, larger than 5.0 mm.

The graph on right shows further breakdown of size of nodule at 1 mm increments.
Girls shown in red line and boys in green.

Following data shows the thyroid examination subjects who had cysts in the fiscal year 2011 examination.
For original document, please refer to this link so that you may zoom in.
https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B68f83tqq7Qud05vOWNGaXpkUU0/edit
(Page 15 of the report, which is page 18 of the actual document.)

The table on bottom left shows breakdown by size of cysts and sex.

Left column shows size.

Of 38,114 examined, 24,730 (12,890 boys and 11,840 girls) had no cysts..
12,414 had cysts smaller than 5.0 mm.
969 had cysts graded A2, smaller than 20.0 mm.
1 had cysts graded B, larger than 20.0 mm.

The graph on right shows further breakdown of size of cysts at 1 mm increments.
Girls shown in red line and boys in green.Source

 


26 years after Chernobyl: the KGB/NEA documentation (pdf)

It is 26 years since the Chernobyl disaster, and recently 121 documents dating from 1971 to 1988 have been released, after spending years in the archives of the former KGB in Ukraine, reports El Mundo and BBC News. The documents show that things started going wrong right from the start. According to the released documents, Ukrainian KGB regularly reported systematic security breaches to Moscow under the whole construction period from 1976 to 1979. A report dating back to 1984 also shows abnormalities in the third and fourth reactor, and it was the fourth reactor that exploded in 1986. In addition, reports confirm use of poor quality equipment delivered by Yugoslavian companies. It’s also reported of an incident in 1982 resulting in the release of small doses of radiation.

The Chernobyl reactor was in use as late as December 2000, when the authorities finally gave in to international pressure and closed the plant, burying it in a sarcophagus of concrete.

Debate between Ukraine and Russia
The released documents have also created a heated discussion between Ukraine and Russia about whether the concrete sarcophagus build to stop radiation is secure or not, reports. Russia’s atomic energy minister Aleksander Rumyantsev stated recently at a press conference that the sarcophagus had a number of leaks, and should be secured as soon as possible in order to prevent a total collapse. This was rejected by the Ukrainian Fuel and Energy Ministry, saying that the problems with the sarcophagus were under control and could be managed until a new storage facility is in place, possibly in 2008.

Russia questions the number of deaths
The explosion on April 26th 1986 in reactor four resulted in 100 times more radiation that the bombs dropped over Nagasaki and Hiroshima combined. 31 workers were killed immediately in the explosion, while it is estimated that between 15 000 and 30 000 later have died at as a result of the disaster. The numbers are elusive and could be much higher. UN reports that six million people continue to live in areas polluted by radioactivity. Russia’s atomic energy minister stated at the press conference that he thought the number were ridiculously high and that the death toll should be around a couple of hundred.


Deepwater and Fukushima : the end of our planet

Compelling evidence of the impact of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on deep-sea corals will be published online in the Early Edition of the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences during the week beginning March 26. The diverse team of researchers, led by Penn State Professor of Biology Charles Fisher, used a wide range of underwater vehicles, including the research submarine Alvin, to investigate the corals. They also used comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to determine precisely the source of the petroleum hydrocarbons they found.

Other researchers on the team include the paper’s lead author, Assistant Professor of Chemistry Helen White of Haverford College, Erik Cordes of Temple University, and Timothy Shank and Christopher German of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), which operates the Navy-owned submersible Alvin. Fisher, Cordes, Shank and German are co-authors of the study, along with 10 other scientists from WHOI, Penn State, Temple and the U.S. Geological Survey.

The study’s findings are significant for a number of reasons, White said.

“These biological communities in the deep Gulf of Mexico are separated from human activity at the surface by 4,000 feet of water. We would not expect deep-water corals to be impacted by a typical oil spill, but the sheer magnitude of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and its release at depth make it very different from a tanker running aground and spilling its contents. Because of the unprecedented nature of the spill, we have learned that its impacts are more far reaching than those arising from smaller spills that occur on the surface.”

The study grew out of an initial research cruise to the Gulf, led by Fisher in late October 2010 — approximately six months after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. This expedition was part of an ongoing study funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Ocean Exploration and Research program. Using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Jason II, the team examined nine sites at distances greater than 20 kilometers from the Macondo Well and found deep-water coral communities unharmed. However, when the ROV explored another area 11 kilometers to the south west of the spill site, the team was surprised to discover numerous coral communities covered in a brown flocculent material and showing signs of tissue damage.

“We discovered the site during the last dive of the three-week cruise,” said Fisher, a biologist and the chief scientist of this mission. “As soon as the ROV got close enough to the community for the corals to come into clear view, it was clear to me that something was wrong at this site. I think it was too much white and brown, and not enough color on the corals and brittle stars. Once we were close enough to zoom in on a few colonies, there was no doubt that this was something I had not seen anywhere else in the Gulf: an abundance of stressed corals, showing clear signs of a recent impact. This is exactly what we had been on the lookout for during all dives, but hoping not to see anywhere.”

These coral communities were 4,300 feet deep, in close proximity to the Macondo well, which had been capped three months previously after spilling an estimated 160 million gallons of oil into the Gulf. Because the timing and unprecedented nature of this observation suggested that the damage observed visually resulted from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the scientists rapidly organized a second research cruise, which began on Dec. 8, 2010, barely a month after their return to land following their initial discovery.

Joining this second research cruise, again headed by Fisher, was White, whose expertise as a geochemist was key to the interdisciplinary effort. This rare opportunity for the researchers to return to a deep-water site so quickly for the subsequent study was made possible with funding from the National Science Foundation’s RAPID Collaborative Research grant program, which aids scientists seeking to respond quickly to urgent issues such as natural disasters or crises resulting from human activity.

To examine the deep water, the team used the autonomous underwater vehicle Sentry to map and photograph the ocean floor, and the deep-submergence, 3-passenger, robotic-armed vehicle Alvin to get a better look at the distressed corals. During six dives in Alvin, the team collected sediments and samples of the corals and filtered the brown material off of the corals for analysis.

To identify the oil found in the coral communities, White worked with Christopher Reddy and Robert Nelson at WHOI using an advanced technique called comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography, which was pioneered at WHOI by Reddy and Nelson for use in oil spill research. The method, which separates oil compounds by molecular weight, allows scientists to essentially “fingerprint” oil and determine its source.

This exacting petroleum analysis, coupled with the analysis of 69 images from 43 individual corals at the site — performed by Pen-Yuan Hsing, a graduate student of Fisher’s at Penn State — yielded strong evidence that the coral communities were impacted by oil from the Macondo well spill.

Fisher said these findings confirm a serious impact from the spill on the animal communities in the deep sea more than seven miles from the Macondo well. He added, “Our ongoing work in the Gulf will allow us to better understand the long-term effects of the spill on the deep sea, and to constrain the footprint of the impact zone for deep-water corals around the Macondo well.”

The World is at a critical crossroads. The Fukushima disaster in Japan has brought to the forefront the dangers of Worldwide nuclear radiation.

The crisis in Japan has been described as “a nuclear war without a war”. In the words of renowned novelist Haruki Murakami:

“This time no one dropped a bomb on us … We set the stage, we committed the crime with our own hands, we are destroying our own lands, and we are destroying our own lives.”

Nuclear radiation –which threatens life on planet earth– is not front page news in comparison to the most insignificant issues of public concern, including the local level crime scene or the tabloid gossip reports on Hollywood celebrities.

While the long-term repercussions of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster are yet to be fully assessed, they are far more serious than those pertaining to the 1986 Chernobyl disaster in the Ukraine, which resulted in almost one million deaths (New Book Concludes – Chernobyl death toll: 985,000, mostly from cancer Global Research, September 10, 2010, See also Matthew Penney and Mark Selden The Severity of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster: Comparing Chernobyl and Fukushima, Global Research, May 25, 2011)

Moreover, while all eyes were riveted on the Fukushima Daiichi plant, news coverage both in Japan and internationally failed to fully acknowledge the impacts of a second catastrophe at TEPCO’s (Tokyo Electric Power Co Inc) Fukushima Daini nuclear power plant.

The shaky political consensus both in Japan, the U.S. and Western Europe is that the crisis at Fukushima has been contained.

The realties, however, are otherwise. Fukushima 3 was leaking unconfirmed amounts of plutonium. According to Dr. Helen Caldicott, “one millionth of a gram of plutonium, if inhaled can cause cancer”.

An opinion poll in May 2011 confirmed that more than 80 per cent of the Japanese population do not believe the government’s information regarding the nuclear crisis. (quoted in Sherwood Ross, Fukushima: Japan’s Second Nuclear Disaster, Global Research, November 10, 2011)

The Impacts in Japan

The Japanese government has been obliged to acknowledge that “the severity rating of its nuclear crisis … matches that of the 1986 Chernobyl disaster”. In a bitter irony, however, this tacit admission by the Japanese authorities has proven to been part of the cover-up of a significantly larger catastrophe, resulting in a process of global nuclear radiation and contamination:

“While Chernobyl was an enormous unprecedented disaster, it only occurred at one reactor and rapidly melted down. Once cooled, it was able to be covered with a concrete sarcophagus that was constructed with 100,000 workers. There are a staggering 4400 tons of nuclear fuel rods at Fukushima, which greatly dwarfs the total size of radiation sources at Chernobyl.” ( Extremely High Radiation Levels in Japan: University Researchers Challenge Official Data, Global Research, April 11, 2011)

Fukushima in the wake of the Tsunami, March 2011

Worldwide Contamination

The dumping of highly radioactive water into the Pacific Ocean constitutes a potential trigger to a process of global radioactive contamination. Radioactive elements have not only been detected in the food chain in Japan, radioactive rain water has been recorded in California:

“Hazardous radioactive elements being released in the sea and air around Fukushima accumulate at each step of various food chains (for example, into algae, crustaceans, small fish, bigger fish, then humans; or soil, grass, cow’s meat and milk, then humans). Entering the body, these elements – called internal emitters – migrate to specific organs such as the thyroid, liver, bone, and brain, continuously irradiating small volumes of cells with high doses of alpha, beta and/or gamma radiation, and over many years often induce cancer”. (Helen Caldicott, Fukushima: Nuclear Apologists Play Shoot the Messenger on Radiation, The Age, April 26, 2011)

While the spread of radiation to the West Coast of North America was casually acknowledged, the early press reports (AP and Reuters) “quoting diplomatic sources” stated that only “tiny amounts of radioactive particles have arrived in California but do not pose a threat to human health.”

“According to the news agencies, the unnamed sources have access to data from a network of measuring stations run by the United Nations’ Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization. …

… Greg Jaczko, chair of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, told White House reporters on Thursday (March 17) that his experts “don’t see any concern from radiation levels that could be harmful here in the United States or any of the U.S. territories”.

The spread of radiation. March 2011

Public Health Disaster. Economic Impacts

What prevails is a well organized camouflage. The public health disaster in Japan, the contamination of water, agricultural land and the food chain, not to mention the broader economic and social implications, have neither been fully acknowledged nor addressed in a comprehensive and meaningful fashion by the Japanese authorities.

Japan as a nation state has been destroyed. Its landmass and territorial waters are contaminated. Part of the country is uninhabitable. High levels of radiation have been recorded in the Tokyo metropolitan area, which has a population of 39 million (2010) (more than the population of Canada, circa 34 million (2010)) There are indications that the food chain is contaminated throughout Japan:

Radioactive cesium exceeding the legal limit was detected in tea made in a factory in Shizuoka City, more than 300 kilometers away from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Shizuoka Prefecture is one of the most famous tea producing areas in Japan.

A tea distributor in Tokyo reported to the prefecture that it detected high levels of radioactivity in the tea shipped from the city. The prefecture ordered the factory to refrain from shipping out the product. After the accident at the Fukushima nuclear power plant, radioactive contamination of tea leaves and processed tea has been found over a wide area around Tokyo. (See 5 More Companies Detect Radiation In Their Tea Above Legal Limits Over 300 KM From Fukushima, June 15, 2011)

Japan’s industrial and manufacturing base is prostrate. Japan is no longer a leading industrial power. The country’s exports have plummeted. The Tokyo government has announced its first trade deficit since 1980.

While the business media has narrowly centered on the impacts of power outages and energy shortages on the pace of productive activity, the broader issue pertaining to the outright radioactive contamination of the country’s infrastructure and industrial base is a “scientific taboo” (i.e the radiation of industrial plants, machinery and equipment, buildings, roads, etc). A report released in January 2012 points to the nuclear contamination of building materials used in the construction industry, in cluding roads and residential buildings throughout Japan.(See FUKUSHIMA: Radioactive Houses and Roads in Japan. Radioactive Building Materials Sold to over 200 Construction Companies, January 2012)

A “coverup report” by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (May 2011), entitled “Economic Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Current Status of Recovery” presents “Economic Recovery” as a fait accompli. It also brushes aside the issue of radiation. The impacts of nuclear radiation on the work force and the country’s industrial base are not mentioned. The report states that the distance between Tokyo -Fukushima Dai-ichi is of the order of 230 km (about 144 miles) and that the levels of radiation in Tokyo are lower than in Hong Kong and New York City.(Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Current Status of Recovery, p.15). This statement is made without corroborating evidence and in overt contradiction with independent radiation readings in Tokyo (se map below). In recent developments, Sohgo Security Services Co. is launching a lucrative “radiation measurement service targeting households in Tokyo and four surrounding prefectures”.

“A map of citizens’ measured radiation levels shows radioactivity is distributed in a complex pattern reflecting the mountainous terrain and the shifting winds across a broad area of Japan north of Tokyo which is in the center of the of bottom of the map.”

“Radiation limits begin to be exceeded at just above 0.1 microsieverts/ hour blue. Red is about fifty times the civilian radiation limit at 5.0 microsieverts/hour. Because children are much more sensitive than adults, these results are a great concern for parents of young children in potentially affected areas.

SOURCE: Science Magazine

The fundamental question is whether the vast array of industrial goods and components “Made in Japan” — including hi tech components, machinery, electronics, motor vehicles, etc — and exported Worldwide are contaminated? Were this to be the case, the entire East and Southeast Asian industrial base –which depends heavily on Japanese components and industrial technology– would be affected. The potential impacts on international trade would be farreaching. In this regard, in January, Russian officials confiscated irradiated Japanese automobiles and autoparts in the port of Vladivostok for sale in the Russian Federation. Needless to say, incidents of this nature in a global competitive environment, could lead to the demise of the Japanese automobile industry which is already in crisis.

While most of the automotive industry is in central Japan, Nissan’s engine factory in Iwaki city is 42 km from the Fukushima Daiichi plant. Is the Nissan work force affected? Is the engine plant contaminated? The plant is within about 10 to 20 km of the government’s “evacuation zone” from which some 200,000 people were evacuated (see map below).

Nuclear Energy and Nuclear War

The crisis in Japan has also brought into the open the unspoken relationship between nuclear energy and nuclear war.

Nuclear energy is not a civilian economic activity. It is an appendage of the nuclear weapons industry which is controlled by the so-called defense contractors. The powerful corporate interests behind nuclear energy and nuclear weapons overlap.

In Japan at the height of the disaster, “the nuclear industry and government agencies [were] scrambling to prevent the discovery of atomic-bomb research facilities hidden inside Japan’s civilian nuclear power plants”.1 (See Yoichi Shimatsu, Secret Weapons Program Inside Fukushima Nuclear Plant? Global Research, April 12, 2011)

It should be noted that the complacency of both the media and the governments to the hazards of nuclear radiation pertains to the nuclear energy industry as well as to to use of nuclear weapons. In both cases, the devastating health impacts of nuclear radiation are casually denied. Tactical nuclear weapons with an explosive capacity of up to six times a Hiroshima bomb are labelled by the Pentagon as “safe for the surrounding civilian population”.

No concern has been expressed at the political level as to the likely consequences of a US-NATO-Israel attack on Iran, using “safe for civilians” tactical nuclear weapons against a non-nuclear state.

Such an action would result in “the unthinkable”: a nuclear holocaust over a large part of the Middle East and Central Asia. A nuclear nightmare, however, would occur even if nuclear weapons were not used. The bombing of Iran’s nuclear facilities using conventional weapons would contribute to unleashing another Fukushima type disaster with extensive radioactive fallout. (For further details See Michel Chossudovsky, Towards a World War III Scenario, The Dangers of Nuclear War, Global Research, Montreal, 2011)

Fukushima: A Nuclear War without a War

In view of the official cover-up and media disinformation campaign, the contents of the articles and video reports in this Online Interactive Reader have not trickled down to to the broader public. (See Table of contents below)

This Online Interactive Reader on Fukushima contains a combination of analytical and scientific articles, video reports as well as shorter news reports and corroborating data.

Part I focusses on The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster: How it Happened? Part II pertains to The Devastating Health and Social Impacts in Japan. Part III centers on the “Hidden Nuclear Catastrophe”, namely the cover-up by the Japanese government and the corporate media. Part IV focusses on the issue of Worlwide Nuclear Radiation and Part V reviews the Implications of the Fukushima disaster for the Global Nuclear Energy Industry.

In the face of ceaseless media disinformation, this Global Research Online I-Book on the dangers of global nuclear radiation is intended to break the media vacuum and raise public awareness, while also pointing to the complicity of the governments, the media and the nuclear industry.

We call upon our readers to spread the word.


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