Tag Archives: Deepwater Horizon oil spill

BP’s Secret Caspian Sea Blowout Foreshadowed The Gulf Oil Spill

 

BP, government leaders, and other oil executives covered up a secret blowout in the Caspian Sea two years before the Gulf spill caused by the same reason.

BBC investigative reporter and Guardian reporter Greg Palast reveals shocking details about a secret blowout that BP covered up which occurred on the Central Azeri platform of the coast of Azerbaijan in the Caspian Sea two years prior to the Deepwater Horizon Blowout.

Greg reveals how he was contacted by a source and then flew to Azerbaijan to document BP’s cover up of the blowout which was caused by a blowout in the cement used when drilling the well, just like during the BP Gulf Oil Spill.

Greg learned that the Caspian blowout was die to the use of a quick drying cement that is highly prone to failure when exposed to gases, such as methane, during the drilling process.

For that reason, following the Caspian Sea blowout, the use of the quick drying cement should have been discontinued in the use of deep-sea drilling operations.

Yet BP continued to recklessly use it anyway for the sake of being able to increase profits and cut costs by drilling wells faster.

Two years later when the Deepwater Horizon Blowout occurred BP played dumb and pointed fingers at Halliburton for the cement job failure even going as far as testifying under oath before Congress they didn’t know cement could fail.

Meanwhile, Halliburton who did the cement job for BP on the well, pointed fingers at BP saying as a contractor performing all work according to BP’s specifications they were not responsible.

These new revelations reveal that BP knew full well the cement would fail and the Caspian blowout taught them full well what the risks were the next time a well failed.

Adding insult to injury, the media ran repeated footage of BP and other Big Oil executive’s testifying before congress that the BP Gulf Oil Spill was unprecedented and nothing like this had ever happened in history.

Even more sickening, as documented by Wikileaks ambassador cables showed in the interview, is the entire time these psychopaths where lying to congress on national televisions, the U.S. government and other world leaders knew about the Azerbaijan blowout.

BP committed what is nothing less than reckless manslaughter if not outright second degree murder of 11 people when the rig exploded.

Congress and other oil executives help them to cover it and it was all to achieve nothing more than being able save money by drilling wells faster.

Meanwhile, the Gulf remains pollution with oil still washing up on shore as giant plumes float beneath the water’s surface and massive slicks continue to be spotted coming from the site site of the blowout

The BP Gulf Oil Spill Cover Up Continues! Watch the entire interview.

READ THE REST OF THE ARTICLE

 

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Oopsie..BP Owes $192 Billion for Gulf Oil Disaster

 

On Friday, the Financial Times reported that BP is hoping to reach an agreement with U.S. authorities which would require it to pay under $15 billion to settle all criminal and civil penalties arising from the 2010 Gulf oil disaster. The Department of Justice is reportedly seeking $20 to $25 billion. Negotiations between the DOJ and BP are accelerating and “an agreement could be reached before the Democratic party’s convention in September,” the FT reported.

While $15 billion sounds like a lot of money — and it is — it is a far cry from what BP owes for the many costs associated with the largest offshore oil spill in history. To date, a full accounting of exactly what BP should owe for its crimes in the Gulf has not been made public. Such an accounting is vital if we are to ensure that justice and restoration are delivered to the Gulf Coast and that such a catastrophe never occurs again.

A straightforward application of just the most pertinent U.S. laws yields a fine of $192 billion. (For simplicity sake, I only address BP’s fines.)

Sound high? Here’s why it’s not.

Seaman’s Manslaughter Statute = $2.75 – $5.5 million

Eleven men died aboard the Deepwater Horizon: Gordon Jones, Dewey Revette, Jason Anderson, Shane Roshto, Stephen Curtis, Blair Manuel, Karl Kleppinger, Adam Weise, Don Clark, Roy Kemp, and Aaron Dale Burkeen. Title 18 Section 1115 of the U.S. Criminal Code, the “Seaman’s Manslaughter Statute,” holds companies, executives, managers, and employees of vessels liable for fines and imprisonment for deaths occurring on their rigs. Simple negligence (not intent) is enough to secure a conviction. The conclusions of numerous critical investigations make negligence a forgone conclusion in this case. Criminal penalties include up to 10 years imprisonment per violation and fines. Individual fine: $250,000 per violation x 11 = $2.75 million. Company fine: $500,000 x 11 = $5.5 million.

Clean Water Act: $30.5 billion

Clean Water Act (CWA): “… no discharges of oil or hazardous substances into or upon the navigable waters of the United States…” “Hazardous substances” are “… such elements and compounds which, when discharged in any quantity… present an imminent and substantial danger to… including, but not limited to, fish, shellfish, wildlife…”

4.9 million barrels of oil was released from the Macondo well, while .8 million barrels were captured at wellhead, and therefore did not escape into the water. The CWA imposes a fine of $1,100 per barrel for the mere act of spilling oil into the water. A spill that is the result of negligence, as is the case here, entails a $4,300 per barrel spilled fine is imposed. 4.1 million barrels of oil x $4,300 per barrel = $17.63 billion.

500,000 tonnes of gaseous hydrocarbons (including methane gas) were also released (3 million barrels of oil equivalent). Just as excessive oil is a hazardous pollutant, so too is excessive gas which depletes the oxygen Gulf waters need to support life, such as fish, shellfish, and wildlife. 3 x $4,300 per barrel = $12.9 billion.

Alternative Fines Act (AFA)
Dr. David Uhlmann, former head of the U.S. Department of Justice Environmental Crimes Section, argues for criminal charges against BP under the CWA, making BP liable under the Alternative Fines Act (AFA) to be fined double the losses caused. Dr. Uhlmann argues for application of the AFA to at least all economic losses and natural resource damages.

Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act: $37 million

The Interior Department cited BP for 12 violations of drilling rules @ $35,000 per violation for 87 days = 36.54 million.

To calculate fines under the Endangered Species, Marine Mammal Protection, and Migratory Bird Treaty Acts below, I used the latest data on species deaths provided by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Association, supplemented by “A Deadly Toll: The Gulf Oil Spill and the Unfolding Wildlife Disaster,” Center for Biological Diversity, April 2011. I use the latter to provide “multipliers” to account for estimates of the dead not found versus those recovered. I apply the highest possible fines, criminal charges, because this is a “knowing” offense: BP and its partners took so many risks that they knew such a disaster might reasonably occur.

Endangered Species Act: $284 million

Approximately 5680 injured or dead endangered or threatened species, including 100 sperm whales and over 6,000 sea turtles. @ $50,000 each = $284 million.

Marine Mammal Protection Act: $60 million

Data from April 2011 finds 26,000 marine mammals directly injured or killed. But hundreds more dolphins have since been found. Applying the standard multiplier for those impacted but still at sea, 30,000 is more likely. @ $20,000 fine per impacted mammal = $60 million.

Migratory Bird Treaty Act: $9.4 million

Some 82,000 birds were identified as injured or dead, including more than 8,200 brown pelicans and 30,000 Laughing Gulls. The species of some 6,000 birds was unknown, and therefore it is unknown if they are migratory.

The Migratory Bird Treaty Act: 73 bird species harmed by spill are migratory, totaling 18,770 birds, including nearly 5,000 Northern Gannets, 3,000 Royal Terns and 220 Snowy Egrets. @ $500 per bird = $9.4 million.

Oil Pollution Act (OPA) = $152 Billion

Under the 1990 OPA, BP is responsible for stopping the spill; cleaning up the pollution; a Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA); full environmental restoration; and full victim compensation.

Natural Resource Damage Assessment: $62 billion ($31B x 2 [AFA])
The NRDA process is underway and we will not know for decades the full impact of the disaster. Thus, for numbers, I turn to the National Wildlife Federation which used the Exxon Valdez settlement as precedent. Exxon paid $152 (adjusted for inflation) per-gallon of oil spilled for restoration. $152 x 4.1 million barrels of oil = $31 billion.

This may be an extreme underestimation. While the oil carried by the Valdez was heavier and more polluting and the weather colder and therefore less likely to allow the oil to evaporate, BP’s spill was nearly 20 times larger; impacted five states, each with much larger populations than Alaska; harmed a much larger, more fragile, and diverse ecosystem; took place for a significantly longer period of time; and involved dramatically more chemical dispersant. Moreover, after 30 years, restoration in the Prince William Sound has not been achieved.

Economic Loss: $79 billion ($39.7B x 2 [AFA])

Fisheries = $30 billion
From 2009 to 2010, in Louisiana and Mississippi, oyster production fell 55% and 34%, respectively; shrimp declined in Mississippi by 52%, in Alabama by 48%, and in Louisiana, by 14%. 2011 data is not yet available, but, as I reported in the Progressive Magazine in April, fishers report that things are getting much worse, with production of some crops reportedly down by as much as 80% in the hardest hit areas. The outlook is grim for recovery in the near term and many experts worry that some species may never fully recover. In Prince William Sound Alaska, for example, herring fisheries all but disappeared in the wake of the Valdez spill.

The Congressional Research Service reports that in 2008, the Gulf commercial fishing industry supported over 213,000 jobs with related income impacts of $5.5 billion. Additionally, recreational fisheries supported numerous businesses and spent over $12.5 billion on durable equipment and trips in the Gulf. Combined, Gulf seafood and recreational fishing industry = $18 billion a year business.

I conservatively estimate that just one third of the industry will be out for just five years = $30 billion.

Tourism = $9.7 billion
According to Oxford Economics, visitors to Congressional Districts along the Gulf coast spent in excess of $34 billion in 2008, sustaining 400,000 jobs. In an extensive analysis of past disasters affecting tourism destinations, including oil spills, the group estimated in July 2010 (after the well was caped) the possible costs to tourism at $22.7 billion over three years. It estimates a cost reduction of $7.5 billion if BP spent $500 million on tourism marketing. BP has spent $179 million on such advertising. The report, however, overestimates the tourist areas of Florida impacted by the spill.

Taking these elements into account yields a final estimate of $9.7 billion over three years.

Economic Loss – Human Health: $20 billion ($10 x 2 [AFA])

More than 21 million people live along the U.S. Gulf Coast. As I reported in The Nation in May, in the wake of the disaster, acute health problems have been widely reported across the Gulf and doctors and researchers predict a host of chronic ailments. The most common acute problems are headaches; nausea; respiratory problems, irritated eyes, nose, throat, and lungs; and asthma attacks. Others report a “BP rash” of itchy, peeling, irritated and even burned skin and neurological effects, dubbed “BP moments,” include dizziness, forgetfulness, and confusion. Extreme health impacts including excessive bleeding from nose, ears, breasts, urinary tract, and anal canal; heart irregularities; and dementia are also reported. Expected chronic impacts include, respiratory ailments, developmental disorders for fetuses and children, neurological disorders, cancers, liver and kidney disease, and mental health disorders.

The proposed Medical Benefits Settlement with BP severely underestimates the potential impacted population and includes just an estimated 200,000 people. It does not, however, include a financial cap.

I estimate the health costs, which are expected to last for decades, at just one quarter the broader financial toll: $10 billion.

The Gulf oil spill is the largest ecological disaster in U.S. history and the world’s largest offshore oil spill. The failures that led to this disaster are not only endemic of BP, Transocean, Halliburton, and their other Macondo partners, but they permeate the entire offshore oil industry, which has pushed beyond its own technological capacity in pursuit of profit. Fortunately, we have laws that not only punish these actions, provide for restoration and restitution, but are also designed to deter such risky and destructive activities in the future. If BP is not held to the law, than the costs of such dangerous operations will invariably be once again outweighed by the benefits.

Antonia Juhasz is a leading oil and energy analyst who has written extensively on the BP Gulf oil spill. She is the author of several books, including Black Tide: the Devastating Impact of the Gulf Oil Spill (Wiley, 2011). With support from The Investigative Fund of the Nation Institute, she wrote the cover article of The Nation in May, “Investigation: Two Years After the BP Spill, A Hidden Health Crisis Festers.” She also wrote the cover article of the Progressive Magazine in April, “BP Oil Still Tars the Gulf.” She spent much of 2010 embedded within those communities most impacted by the spill.

With research by Lindsey Ingraham and Amit Srivastava.

 


A spill settlement could leave Halliburton cash for buybacks

 

If negotiations between the federal government and companies linked to the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill lead to a settlement with Halliburton, it could present an opportunity for the company to repurchase some of its stock and boost its share prices, an analyst said Monday.

“A Macondo resolution would allow the company to resume buying back stock and expect Halliburton to be a relative outperformer,” Barclays Capital wrote in a Monday morning analyst’s note.

Halliburton was the cement contractor on BP’s Macondo well, which blew out in April 2010, killing 11 workers on Transocean’s Deepwater Horizon drilling rig and spilling an estimated 4.9 million barrels of crude into the Gulf of Mexico.

The federal government has filed suit alleging Clean Water Act violations that could result in billions of dollars in fines, depending on how a federal court apportions culpability for the spill and whether it finds the disaster resulted from gross negligence.

In the first quarter Halliburton booked a $300 million charge for estimated loss contingencies related to the accident. Analysts have said that Halliburton estimates the total loss it will incur to be about $1 billion.

The company has been conserving its cash in preparation for a possible payout, and now has about $2.7 billion in cash and cash equivalents. Barclays believes some of that might be available for a stock buyback when the litigation is resolved.

Halliburton’s stock has been volatile in the two years since the accident, pulled in opposite directions by uncertainty surrounding its spill liability and by its role as a major provider of oil field services technology that’s driving the boom in oil and gas production from shale formations. Its shares fell from $34.96 just before the accident to $28.63 that summer, then reached a high of $57.20 in July 2011. In the past year, the low price of natural gas and drop in natural gas drilling has contribute to another stock decline, and it now hovers around $28, a price that analysts believe does not reflect its underlying value.

“Despite the challenges in the North American Markets that have weighed on the shares, HAL remains a best-in-class domestic franchise and internationally volumes are trending higher and we expect margins to improve throughout the year,” Barclays wrote.Source

 


The Gulf Oil Disaster: 1 image equals 1000 Words

Hey hi ) I dont agree 100% with Alex Jones,Infowars or /and Jesse Ventura but I have to admit they both hit a nerve. Something wasn’t adding up in both disasters.Something wasn’t right. And I say that as an ex Oil Engineer/Researcher.Something wasn’t right from the beginning. My apologies it took me so long to end up on this one.concentrating all theories which.. BTW.. they are not conspiracies.. Those are your only reality.. Scroll back at my older Oil posts.. something is Greasy,many interests not even in conflict but working together.

Even the Anaheim event was staged. I mean Jesus..


9 Mysterious Deaths For BP

The Intel Hub
October 27, 2011

In the last year and a half at least 10 experts, whistleblowers and BP connected individuals have died under mysterious circumstances.

This information was widely reported in an April 10th, 2011 video which at the time listed 9 deaths and 3 imprisonments, disappearances, or attempted assassinations.

Now, another BP oil spill connected individual has mysteriously died, moving the number of oil spill connected deaths to at least 10.

George Thomas Wainwright, a BP ROV pilot was supposedly killed in a freak shark attack in Australia.

The avid outdoorsman and Texas A&M graduate was a marine systems engineer involved with capping the Macondo well after last year’s BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

Wainwright – whose body was recovered by the college friends he was boating with – is the third man killed by a great white in the state in two months.

While this is obviously a very sad story, it may have a more sinister meaning considering the fact that at least 9 other BP and oil spill related whistleblowers or experts have died since the oil spill that saw a horrendous amount of openly toxic dispersant sprayed throughout the gulf.

Consider this breakdown from Real Coastal Warriors:

Tucker Mendoza

April 2, 2011 – Tucker Mendoza, gulf truth activist, still recovering, along with his niece. Shot four times through his front door, niece hit twice. Anyone with information regarding this shooting incident should call St. John the Baptist Parish Detectives at 985-359-8769 or Crimestoppers at 504-822-1111.

 

 

 

 

 

Gregory Stone

February 17, 2011 – LSU scientist Gregory Stone, 54 – Died of Unknown Illness. Stone was an oft-quoted

expert concerning the damage the leaked oil might cause to the coast.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthony Nicholas Tremonte

January 26, 2011 – Anthony Nicholas Tremonte, age 31 – Mississippi Department of Marine Resources officer, from Ocean Springs arrested on child porn charge

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. Thomas B. Manton

January 19, 2011 – Dr. Thomas B. Manton, former President and CEO of the International Oil Spill Control Corporation – imprisonment and subsequent murder while jailed.

 

 

 

 

John P. Wheeler III

December 31, 2010 – John P. Wheeler III, a former Pentagon official and presidential aide and a defense consultant and expert on chemical and biological weapons – was beaten to death in an assault, body was discovered in a Wilmington landfill.

 

 

 

 

James Patrick Black

November 23, 2010 – James Patrick Black, an incident commander for BP’s Gulf of Mexico oil spill response team, died Tuesday night near Destin, Florida in a small plane crash

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chitra Chaunhan

November 15, 2010 – Chitra Chaunhan, age 33, worked in the USF Center for Biological Defense and Global Health Infectious Disease Research – Found dead in an apparent suicide by cyanide at a Temple Terrace hotel. She leaves behind a husband and a young child.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr. Geoffrey Gardner

November, 2010 – MIA Status – Dr. Geoffrey Gardner of Lakeland, FL – Swan expert who “ran into legal trouble over an expired prescription license has closed his practice” — Was investigating unexplained bird deaths near Sarasota abruptly and immediately closed his practice, and apparently his investigation into the deaths of swans in Sarasota, suspected to have been impacted by the BP Oil Disaster. No one has heard or spoken with him since. Watch this news report covering his investigation before his disappearance: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sqbx2TnbYlc&feature=player_embedded

 

 

 

Roger Grooters

October 6, 2010 – Roger Grooters, age 66, was hit by a truck as he passed through Panama City, Florida. Mr. Grooters had been knocked down and killed close to the end of a 3,200-mile trans-America charity ride to raise awareness about the Gulf Coast oil disaster. He began his cross-country bike ride in Oceanside, California, on September 10th. Grooters’s family and friends will cycle the final stretch of the journey from the Pacific to the Atlantic in his honour, raising cash to support Gulf Coast families.

 

 

 

 

 

Senator Ted Stevens

August 9, 2010 – Senator Ted Stevens of Alaska, 86, the longest-serving Republican senator in history, was among nine people on board when the 1957 DeHavilland DHC-3 Otter, crashed into a brush- and rock-covered mountainside Monday afternoon about 17 miles north of the southwest Alaska fishing town of Dillingham, federal officials said. Stevens was the recipient of a whistleblower’s communication relative to the BP Oil Disaster blow-out preventer, and a conspiracy of secrecy to hide the facts from the public.

“You and your fellow Committee members may wish to require BP to explain what action was ultimately instituted to cease the practice of falsifying BOP tests at BP Prudhoe drilling rigs. It was a cost saving but dangerous practice, again endangering the BP workforce, until I exposed it to Senator Ted Stevens, the EPA, and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission.” The cause of the crash is still an OPEN investigation by the NTSB (http://www.ntsb.gov/ntsb/GenPDF.asp?id=ANC10MA068&rpt=p)

 

 

 

 

 

Matthew Simmons

August 13, 2010 – Matthew Simmons, age 67 – Simmons’ body was found Sunday night in his hot tub, investigators said. An autopsy by the state medical examiner’s office concluded Monday that he died from accidental drowning with heart disease as a contributing factor – “It was painful as can be” to be only insider willing to speak out against the “officials” during the BP Oil Disaster in the Gulf of Mexico.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scientist Joseph Morrissey

April 6, 2010 – Scientist

Scientist Joseph Morrissey, age 46 – cell biologist and college professor, a near-native Floridian who chose to return to South Florida after studying at elite universities – was fatally shot during what police say was a home invasion robbery.

 

 

 

 

 

 

And now, after the untimely death of George Thomas Wainwright we can add another to this eerie list: (First part of deaths lists courtesy of Real Coastal Warriors.)

Marine Systems Engineer George Thomas Wainwright

October 22nd/23rd 2011 – BP ROV pilot George Wainwright was killed in apparent freak shark attack off the cost of Australia where some believe he was hiding out in fear of his life.(unconfirmed)

These mysterious deaths absolutely must be investigated but without widespread media coverage they will most likely remain largely unknown. The sad fact is most journalists may actually fear reprisal if they even bring up these deaths.Source


When Life Gives You OIL Dispersants Toxicity …

Oil is known to be toxic to living organisms of all types. However, oil dispersants used to treat and control oil spills also can be harmful and lethal.

Oil dispersants are useful when oil spills occur and these dispersants are helpful in the control and management of oil spills in saline or fresh waters. Oil dispersants permit oil spills to be processed and degraded more rapidly by creating oil-dispersant-water interfaces. Oil dispersants remove oil from the water surface and cause it to sink into the water column. Also, subsurface oil masses subjected to underwater dispersants are prevented from rising to the surface. Both surface and subsurface oil dispersants contribute to the formation of distinct underwater oil plumes.
Oil Dispersant Chemical Composition of COREXIT

Listed below are the EPA-listed components (epa.gov) contained in the two major COREXIT products used by BP for the Gulf of Mexico oil spill.

COREXIT Oil Dispersant – Biochemical Composition

1,2-Propanediol (CAS: 57-55-6)
Ethanol, 2-butoxy-* (CAS: 111-76-2)
Butanedioic acid, 2-sulfo-, 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester, sodium salt (1:1) (CAS: 577-11-7)
Sorbitan, mono-(9Z)-9-octadecenoate (UCAS: 1338-43-8)
Sorbitan, mono-(9Z)-9-octadecenoate, poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivs. (CAS: 9005-65-6)
Sorbitan, tri-(9Z)-9-octadecenoate, poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivs. (CAS: 9005-70-3 )
Propanol, 1-(2-butoxy-1-methylethoxy)- (CAS: 29911-28-2 2)
Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated light (CAS: 64742-47-8 )

(*Note: Ethanol, 2-butoxy- is not contained in Corexit 9500 and the CAS numbers provided above are registry numbers of the American Chemical Society)

Hydrogen Sulfide Problem? Reduce H2S in oils and fuels Sulfix™ H2S scavengers http://www.bakerhughes.com/sulfix
Oil Spill Detection Using Coastal or Port radar system Automatic Real Time Oil Spill Alert http://www.VissimVts.com

In summary, the major components of COREXIT are essentially butanedioic acid, butoxyethanol, propanediol, propanol, sorbitan (octadecenoate compounds and derivatives) and some light petroleum distillates. Depending on the concentration, each of these products alone has some toxic or lethal characteristics.
Oil Dispersant Toxicity Lab Tests

The EPA has established specific laboratory procedures to evaluate the toxicity of the 18 different dispersants currently approved for use to treat oil spills. These lab tests involve the following major aspects:

test organisms (one specific species of fish and one specific species of crustacean)
serial diluted concentrations of dispersant or oil to yield known parts per million (ppm)
introduction of test organisms and timed exposure for 48 and 96 hours
observation and recording of live and dead test organisms after the 48- and 96-hr exposure and comparison with controls not exposed to either dispersant or dispersant-oil combination

Oil Dispersant Lab Methods and Results

The healthy fish and the crustaceans are counted and added in defined numbers to the test and control containers. Control containers contain neither the dispersant nor the oil and controls serve to determine if anything abnormal is happening in the test system. Typically, all control animals survive in the control containers. Experimental test containers harbor the diluted dispersant or dispersant-oil materials at the different, measured concentrations in ppm.

Cited here below are actual lab results in parts per million for dispersant alone and dispersant mixed with fuel oil. Notice that the dispersant alone requires higher ppm to cause death than the combination of fuel oil and dispersant. This shows that this combination is more dangerous than dispersant alone. No results are given for fuel oil alone. This control is omitted for these tests:

COREXIT® EC9500A was tested on the fish Menidia beryllina and the crustacean Mysidopsis bahia and the LC50 (ppm) was 25.20 at 96-hr and 32.23 48-hr respectively for each species.
COREXIT® EC9500A and No. 2 Fuel Oil (1:10) mixed tested similarly with Menidia beryllina and the crustacean Mysidopsis bahia yielded an LC50 of 2.61 at 96-hr and 3.40 at 48-hr.

(Data above is adapted from epa.gov. Accessed June 11, 2010.)
Oil Dispersants and Animal and Human Toxicity

Oil, dispersants and oil-dispersant mixtures are known to have toxicity for marine animals in their natural environments (response.restoration.noaa.gov. Accessed June 11, 2010) However, the overall and detailed long-term effects of these chemicals and mixtures on marine animals is not documented.

People using oil dispersants are advised to use:

a half face filter mask or an air-supplied breathing apparatus (protects respiratory tissues of the nose, throat, bronchi and lungs)
nitrile or PVC gloves, coveralls, boots for skin protection
chemical splash goggles for eye safety

Product warnings from the manufacturer clearly indicate the possible dangers of contact with concentrated or diluted dispersants. Therefore, skin, respiratory and ocular damage is possible when exposed to oil dispersants.

In summary, dispersants alone, or when combined and interacting with oil, pose hazards to animals and humans. Long term studies on the effects of these chemicals on individuals and populations is lacking and it may be hypothesized that internal tissue damage to essential organs such as liver, kidneys and intestines of animals and humans may well occur. The EPA is expected to make some of these determinations following the current BP Gulf spill.

Read more at Suite101: Oil Dispersant Toxic Effects on Animals and Humans | Suite101.com http://suite101.com/article/oil-dispersant-toxic-effects-on-plants-animals-and-humans-a247831#ixzz21W7VqTJE


G8 BP lobbying Europe

Lobbying through trade Associations
BP belongs to 10 trade associations like the ERT and EUROPIA. ERT brings together the seniorboard members of large EU organizations and acts as a direct contact between the companies and theEU commissions and the member state governments. The European Petroleum Industry Association(EUROPIA) represents the European downstream oil industry, presenting common positions on issues which affect the industry to EU institutions. EUROPIA is the united front which shapes Commissionpolicy on behalf of BP and its peers. The Commission frequently consults with EUROPIA as well as with individual oil companies.
2. THE BP LOBBY’S MISSION, GOALS AND ISSUES

The EU is the second-largest energy consumer in the world, a vast geographical area with commonstandards for both products and business practices. Not only the second largest energy market, but alsoa market with common standard in terms of energy legislations. The EU legislators then represent arelevant stakeholder as it provides environmental measures which could affect the industry, in terms of the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS).Some of the BP main areas of interest for lobbying (as stated in its website) are carbon pricing, low-carbon fuels, natural gas and carbon capture and storage on a large scale. Two main axis of interest are:- European policy and legislation, in fields like energy, environmental issues, research and technology,competition (especially relevant due to the mergers and acquisition in the energy sector), taxation,transport, internal market or employment.- European international relations, with regions related to BP business (external relations,external trade, foreign and security policy, etc.).
The primary objective of BP lobby staff is to maintain BP’s relationship with the EuropeanCommission. BP’s strategy is based on the will of obtaining a certain benefit from the effects of scale
that European energy market could assure.Even if BP works to avoid rigorous and binding legislation which might increase its costs or impact onprofits, it tries to strengthen the confidence between itself and the legislators in order to be perceived asa good self-regulator


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