Tag Archives: CIA

The CIA, Mind Control & The Manchurian Candidates Poisoned With Uranium

 

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CIA brainwashing to medical breakthroughs: study to look at Cold War research 7/15/07 Dene Moore – Montreal (CP) ….Suddenly, the human psyche was the new frontier and, thanks to a now-notorious CIA-funded experiment, Montreal found itself an unlikely hub of activity. At McGill’s Allen Memorial Institute, Dr. Ewen Cameron believed he could “depattern” patients – an idea that cost the federal government an undisclosed amount of money this month in an out-of-court settlement with one former patient. Her lawyer said lawsuits involving other people are in the works. While Cameron’s work was the most notorious, he was hardly alone. Over the next few years, Andrea Tome, a medical historian at McGill University, will try to document Canada’s dubious Cold War psychiatric history. “It was happening all over,” Tome said in a recent interview. “It’s a race; not an arms race but a race for science, for technological improvement.” Montreal became a “medical mecca” of sorts, due in no small part to Cameron’s work and the research training program he established at McGill. Cameron served at various times as president of the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the World Psychiatric Association. His patients were put into drug-induced comas, given LSD and exposed for days or weeks at a time to recorded messages. Cameron thought he could “program” the patients without flaw, an idea that intrigued the CIA enough to provide funding, along with the Canadian federal government. Patients like Janine Huard, who picked up her settlement cheque from the Canadian government a few weeks ago, suffered lifetime effects. “I was a guinea pig,” Huard told The Canadian Press in an earlier interview. The CIA previously settled lawsuits with several of Cameron’s former patients, including Huard. It was unusual, even in the context of the times but it’s important to understand that it was the 1950s,” said Dr. Frederick Lowy, who was a junior colleague of Cameron at the institute. There was a lot of research and not a lot of rules. “Doctors who thought they could help a patient by doing something different and new, just did it,” said Lowy, who went on to become head of psychiatry and dean of medicine at the University of Toronto…. With the CIA financing, Cameron’s work became part of a project code-named MK-Ultra, which oversaw 149 similar experiments. More details about the project surfaced last month in declassified CIA documents. Among the 700-plus pages was a memo to the CIA Management Committee acknowledging that the agency accepted experimental drugs that were rejected by commercial manufacturers because of “unfavourable side-effects.” The drugs were tested on monkeys and mice and, eventually, armed forces volunteers. “CIA projects weren’t just being carried out in Montreal,” Tome said. “Clearly there was something larger going on than just one lunatic fringe doctor at work.” Indeed, the CIA and Cameron were not alone. In 1961, 23 inmates at the Kingston Prison for Women were given LSD, one of many studies across the country of the drug which was not yet outlawed. Not all the prisoners consented. Tome said prisons were, at the time, “the No. 1 source of clinical trial research.” While Cameron was conducting his experiments, Dr. Heinz Lehmann was pioneering the use of anti-psychotic drugs at the Verdun Protestant Hospital in Montreal. Like Cameron, he was doing it without supervision and without informed patient consent. Unlike Cameron, his experiments worked. Lehmann had read about a sedative he thought would be effective for psychiatric patients. “He thought he would give it a try on some of his schizophrenic patients,” Tome said. “Within weeks, he had these incredible remission rates.” The drug was thorazine, the first anti-psychotic drug to offer any hope for psychiatric patients. While Cameron’s experiments were partially funded by the CIA, Lowy said they were not performed at the behest of the U.S. spy agency. http://web.archive.org/web/20070821165926/http://www.cbc.ca/cp/health/070715/x071504A.html

‘Family Jewels’ reveal CIA altered mind of four-year-old girl By Robert Lusetich in Los Angeles 6/28/07 EASILY lost, on page 425, in the mass of the CIA’s notorious “Family Jewels” files is a short paragraph outlining “potentially embarrassing Agency activities”. “Experiments in influencing human behaviour through the administration of mind- or personality-altering drugs to unwitting subjects.” Of all the heinous acts committed by the CIA in the name of national security, these experiments, done on the agency’s behalf by prominent psychiatrists on innocent victims – including children as young as four – may be the darkest….In 1953, MKULTRA was given six per cent of the total CIA budget without any oversight. Only the tip of a large iceberg had been previously released by the CIA under Freedom of Information Act provisions. Yesterday’s acknowledgments will comfort those who have long campaigned for truth and restitution. The nature of the experiments, gathered from government documents and testimony in numerous lawsuits brought against the CIA, is shocking, from testing LSD on children to implanting electrodes in victims’ brains to deliberately poisoning people with uranium. “The CIA bought my services from my grandfather in 1952 starting at the tender age of four,” wrote Carol Rutz of her experiences. “Over the next 12 years, I was tested, trained, and used in various ways. “Electroshock, drugs, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, and other types of trauma were used to make me complain and split my personality (to create multiple personalities for specific tasks). “Each alter or personality was created to respond to a post-hypnotic trigger, then perform an act and (I would) not remember it later. “This Manchurian Candidate program was just one of the operational uses of the mind-control scenario by the CIA. “Your hard-earned tax dollars supported this.” The US began these experiments after World War II when it made a grab for hundreds of Nazi scientists and doctors who had been researching mind control in concentration camps, fearing they would fall into Soviet hands. US military intelligence leaders were paranoid that they were falling behind the communist bloc in the brain-washing race. The programs, though carefully hidden, continued into the 1970s – when Helms ordered much of the documentation to be destroyed. http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,21978876-2,00.html

CIA Experiments with Mind Control on Children by Jon Rappoport “The CIA mind-control apparatus has been well known since 1975, when 10 large boxes of documents were released pursuant to Freedom of Information Act requests….None of this prepared people for the explosive testimony made on March 15, 1995, in Washington, D.C., before the President’s Committee on Radiation, however. In unpublicized sessions, New Orleans therapist Valerie Wolf introduced two of her patients who had uncovered memories of being part of extensive CIA brainwashing programs as young children (in one case, starting at age seven). Their brainwashing included torture, rape, electroshock, powerful drugs, hypnosis and death threats. According to their testimony, the CIA then induced amnesia to prevent their recalling these terrifying sessions. Both Wolf and her patients stated that they recovered the memories of this CIA program without regression or hypnosis techniques. In other words, these patients spontaneously discovered this information about themselves and their pasts.” ….This article appeared in Perceptions Magazine September/October 1995 10734 Jefferson Blvd., Suite 502 Culver City, CA 90230 (310) 313-5185 – and – The Leading Edge Research Journal Issue No. 85, September 1995 Leading Edge Research Group POB 7530 Yelm, Washington 98597 http://www.netti.fi/~makako/mind/child.txt

Ottawa settles brainwashing class action – Allan Memorial Institute. CIA-funded treatments included electroshock, experimental medication Max Harrold – The GazettePublished: 7/5/07 Decades after she was unknowingly brainwashed in a program funded by the federal government and the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, Janine Huard has found some peace of mind in a cash settlement. Exactly how much, she can’t say, because she agreed to keep the amount secret as part of her deal to drop her class-action lawsuit against the federal government….On and off for 15 years, Huard received massive electroshock therapy, experimental pills and was forced to listen to repetitive recorded messages for days on end. Huard’s lawyer, Alan Stein, said the amount she received Tuesday does not exceed the $100,000 the federal government paid to each of 77 other victims of the brainwashing techniques in 1994. Huard also received some interest on the money, he said. She and about 200 other victims of the treatments were denied the 1994 offer because they were deemed to have suffered less than those who were paid. In 1989, Huard was one of nine plaintiffs awarded $67,000 U.S. from the CIA. Stein plans to seek permission to launch a new class-action lawsuit in Federal Court “within weeks” with another former brainwashing patient as the central plaintiff. He knows of about 10 former patients and 20 relatives of former patients who may be part of the new lawsuit, he said. They could have access to $100,000, plus as much as $50,000 in interest, he said….Until 1964, the Allan’s ex-director, Ewen Cameron, conducted experiments at the institute, often without the knowledge or permission of patients. Some patients were kept in drug-induced comas for months. The experiments were part of a larger CIA program called MK-ULTRA, which saw LSD administered to U.S. prison inmates and patrons of brothels without their knowledge, according to testimony before a 1977 U.S. Senate committee. Huard entered the Allan in 1957 after suffering postpartum depression after the birth of her second child. Her newborn had become ill and Huard was having trouble sleeping. Cameron used his experimental techniques on her, mistakenly believing they could treat depression. http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/news/montreal/story.html?id=549f3d3d-65d4-4f75-b389-22b5964c2873

Brainwashed ‘guinea pig’ seeks more damages TheStar.com – News – Brainwashed ‘guinea pig’ seeks more damages – Canadian victim of CIA experiment in ’50s tries to launch class-action suit against Ottawa – Dene Moore – Toronto Star Montreal “Janine Huard says she was a young mother of four with mild post-partum depression when she checked herself in for psychiatric treatment at a Montreal hospital more than five decades ago. Huard says what happened after that still haunts her today and she will be in a federal courtroom this week seeking to launch a class-action lawsuit against the Canadian government for Cold War-era brainwashing experiments carried out on her and hundreds of other patients. I was a guinea pig,” she said. On and off for more than a decade at McGill University’s renowned Allan Memorial Institute, Huard says she received massive electroshocks and was fed more than 40 experimental pills a day. Huard, who will be 79 at the end of the month, says she was drugged and subjected to so-called “depatterning,” during which repetitive recordings were played in her ear for weeks on end, one of them telling her she was of no use to her family. “I came out of there so sick that my mother had to live with me for 10 years,” Huard says. She says she lost memories and suffered from migraines. The ordeal came at the hands of Dr. Ewan Cameron, an Edinburgh-educated, New York-based doctor who pioneered “psychic driving,” by which he believed he could erase the memories of patients and rebuild their psyches without psychiatric defect. The idea intrigued the CIA, which recruited Cameron to experiment with mind control techniques beginning in 1950. The McGill experiments were jointly funded by the CIA and the Canadian government. Cameron gave patients LSD and subjected them to the massive and multiple electroshock treatments. Some underwent sleep deprivation or total sensory deprivation. Others were kept in drug-induced comas for months while speakers under their pillows broadcast messages for up to 16 hours a day. The CIA eventually settled a class-action lawsuit by test subjects, including Huard. The allegations have not been proven in court. A federal court hearing is scheduled to begin Wednesday to decide whether to approve a class-action suit. In 1994, 77 of the mostly unwitting Canadian patients were awarded $100,000 each from the federal government, but only those who suffered “total depatterning,” meaning they were rendered to a childlike state. More than 250 others were denied compensation. In 2004, a federal appeal court overruled that decision and awarded a former patient the $100,000.” http://www.thestar.com/printArticle/168792

“The experiments were part of a larger CIA program called MK-ULTRA, which also saw LSD administered to U.S. prison inmates and patrons of brothels without their knowledge, according to testimony before a 1977 U.S. Senate committee.”

Woman wants to launch lawsuit over ‘brainwashing’ 1/7/07 Montreal “Janine Huard says she was a young mother of four with mild post-partum depression when she checked herself in for psychiatric treatment at a Montreal hospital more than five decades ago. Huard says what happened after that still haunts her today and she will be in a federal courtroom this week seeking to launch a class-action lawsuit against the Canadian government for Cold War-era brainwashing experiments carried out on her and hundreds of other patients. “I was a guinea pig,” Huard told The Canadian Press. On and off over more than a decade at McGill University’s renowned Allan Memorial Institute, Huard says she received massive electroshocks and was fed more than 40 experimental pills a day. Huard, who will be 79 at the end of the month, says she was drugged and subjected to so-called “depatterning,” during which repetitive recordings were played in her ear for weeks on end, one of them telling her she was of no use to her family….The ordeal came at the hands of Dr. Ewen Cameron, an Edinburgh-educated, New York-based doctor who pioneered “psychic driving,” by which he believed he could erase the memories of patients and rebuild their psyches without psychiatric defect. The idea intrigued the CIA, which recruited Cameron to experiment with mind control techniques beginning in 1950. The McGill experiments were jointly funded by the CIA and the Canadian government. As director of the institute until 1964, Cameron conducted a range of experiments, often without the knowledge or permission of patients. Cameron gave patients LSD and subjected them to massive and multiple electroshock treatments. Some underwent sleep deprivation or total sensory deprivation. Others were kept in drug-induced comas for months on end while speakers under their pillows broadcasts messages for up to 16 hours a day. The experiments were part of a larger CIA program called MK-ULTRA, which also saw LSD administered to U.S. prison inmates and patrons of brothels without their knowledge, according to testimony before a 1977 U.S. Senate committee. The CIA eventually settled a class-action lawsuit by test subjects, including Huard, and the Canadian government ordered a judicial report into Cameron’s experiments.” http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/print/CTVNews/20070107/brainwashing_lawsuit_070107/20070107/?hub=Canada&subhub=PrintStory

CIA thought Cameron’s techniques could be useful in the Cold War Compiled by Liz Ferguson, The Gazette 1/11/07 “Ewen Cameron, the man behind the brainwashing experiments, was a Scottish-born psychiatrist who worked at the Royal Victoria Hospital and McGill’s Allan Memorial Institute. From 1950 to 1965 he subjected hundreds of patients at the Allan Memorial to unorthodox treatment involving LSD, huge doses of electroshock, drug-induced comas and tapes that they sometimes listened to for weeks at time. One woman received the treatment through most of her pregnancy. Funding came from the Canadian government and the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency as part of a project called MK-ULTRA. In that Cold War era, the spy agency thought these techniques might be useful against the Soviet Union – perhaps LSD could be used as a truth serum, brainwashing drug or incapacitating agent, given to prisoners or foreign leaders like Cuba’s Fidel Castro.” http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/news/story.html?id=76d8f185-58cd-4f7a-9ef5-04c58a38bd97&k=22098

Papers: CIA knew of Eichmann Whereabouts by Hope Yen, AP 6/6/2006 Washington “Determined to win the Cold War, the CIA kept quiet about the whereabouts of Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in the 1950s for fear he might expose undercover anticommunist efforts in West Germany, according to documents released Tuesday. The 27,000 pages released by the National Archives are among the largest post-World War II declassifications by the CIA. They offer a window into the shadowy world of U.S. intelligence — and the efforts to use former Nazi war criminals as spies, sometimes to detrimental effect.”

Documents Shed Light on CIA’s Use of Ex-Nazis By Scott Shane – The New York Times 6/6/2006 Washington “The Central Intelligence Agency took no action after learning the pseudonym and whereabouts of the fugitive Holocaust overseer Adolf Eichmann in 1958, according to CIA documents that shed new light on the spy agency’s use of former Nazis as informers after World War II. The CIA was told by West German intelligence that Eichmann was living in Argentina under the name “Clemens” – a slight variation on his actual alias, Klement – but kept the information from Israel because of German concerns about exposure of former Nazis in the Bonn government, according to Timothy Naftali, a historian who examined the documents. Two years later, Israeli agents abducted Eichmann in Argentina and took him to Israel, where he was tried and executed in 1962.” http://www.truthout.org/docs_2006/060606R.shtml

Professor McCoy Exposes the History of CIA Interrogation, From the Cold War to the War on Terror 2/17/06 “A new expose gives an account of the CIA’s secret efforts to develop new forms of torture spanning fifty years. It reveals how the CIA perfected its methods, distributing them across the world from Vietnam to Iran to Central America, uncovering the roots of the Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo torture scandals. The book is titled “A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation, From the Cold War to the War on Terror.”….From 1950 to 1962, the C.I.A. ran a massive research project, a veritable Manhattan Project of the mind, spending over $1 billion a year to crack the code of human consciousness, from both mass persuasion and the use of coercion in individual interrogation. And what they discovered — they tried LSD, they tried mescaline, they tried all kinds of drugs, they tried electroshock, truth serum, sodium pentathol. None of it worked. What worked was very simple behavioral findings, outsourced to our leading universities — Harvard, Princeton, Yale and McGill — and the first breakthrough came at McGill. And it’s in the book. And here, you can see the — this is the — if you want show it, you can. That graphic really shows — that’s the seminal C.I.A. experiment done in Canada and McGill University….Dr. Donald O. Hebb of McGill University, a brilliant psychologist, had a contract from the Canadian Defense Research Board, which was a partner with the C.I.A. in this research, and he found that he could induce a state of psychosis in an individual within 48 hours. It didn’t take electroshock, truth serum, beating or pain. All he did was had student volunteers sit in a cubicle with goggles, gloves and headphones, earmuffs, so that they were cut off from their senses, and within 48 hours, denied sensory stimulation, they would suffer, first hallucinations, then ultimately breakdown.” http://www.democracynow.org/print.pl?sid=06/02/17/1522228

CIA agrees to release records detailing ties to former Nazis Douglas Jehl, New York Times 2/7/05 “Washington — Under pressure from Congress, the Central Intelligence Agency has formally agreed to a broad new interpretation of a 1998 law that requires disclosure of classified records related to Nazi war criminals, a CIA document shows.” http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2005/02/07/MNGU8B72US1.DTL

Documents reveal CIA recruited five of Eichmann’s associates by Yossi Melman, Haaretz Correspondent “Five of Adolph Eichmann’s Nazi assistants were recruited and employed by the Central Intelligence Agency after World War II, according to recently declassified intelligence documents. The information came to light after a lengthy battle waged by the non-profit group, The National Security Archive, whose goal is to expose government documents under the framework of the Freedom of Information Act. The newly-revealed documents are based on internal investigations in the CIA’s history department. The agency has steadfastly refused to make the documents public for fear they would cause embarassment.” http://web.archive.org/web/20050205211432/http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/536364.html

CIA urged to release Nazi records 2/1/05 “The CIA has been urged to release documents about Nazi war criminals hired by US intelligence officials during the Cold War era. The call comes from members of Congress who drew up the 1998 public disclosure law, which requires declassification of all documents about the Holocaust. They say the CIA is withholding details of people it recruited after World War II for their expertise. Released documents show links between US intelligence and Nazi war criminals. The CIA has contributed 1.25 million pages of documents, of more than eight million, released under the 1998 law. One former Nazi known to have been employed by Western intelligence was Klaus Barbie, the infamous “Butcher of Lyon”. He was eventually convicted of crimes against humanity by a French court. The law’s authors – Senator Mike DeWine and Representative Carolyn Maloney – believe the CIA is withholding further details on the Nazi war criminals, suspects or collaborators that were hired.” http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4225629.stm

The CIA and Nazi War Criminals National Security Archive Posts Secret CIA History Released Under Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 146 Edited by Tamara Feinstein 2/4/05 “Washington D.C. – Today the National Security Archive posted the CIA’s secret documentary history of the U.S government’s relationship with General Reinhard Gehlen, the German army’s intelligence chief for the Eastern Front during World War II. At the end of the war, Gehlen established a close relationship with the U.S. and successfully maintained his intelligence network (it ultimately became the West German BND) even though he employed numerous former Nazis and known war criminals. The use of Gehlen’s group, according to the CIA history, Forging an Intelligence Partnership: CIA and the Origins of the BND, 1945-49…” http://www2.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB146/index.htm

Brainwash victims win cash claims – Karin Goodwin 10/17/04 “HUNDREDS of mentally ill patients who were subjected to barbaric CIA-funded brainwashing experiments by a Scottish doctor could be entitled to compensation following a landmark court ruling. Doctor Ewan Cameron, who became one of the world=s leading psychiatrists, developed techniques used by Nazi scientists to wipe out the existing personalities of people in his care. Cameron, who graduated from Glasgow University, was recruited by the CIA during the cold war while working at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. He carried out mind-control experiments using drugs such as LSD on hundreds of patients, but only 77 of them were awarded compensation. Now a landmark ruling by a Federal Court judge in Montreal will allow more than 250 former patients, whose claims were rejected, to seek compensation.” http://www.timesonline.co.uk/

US Intelligence and the Nazis – Brietman, Goda, Naftali and Wolfe, “published by the National Archives Trust Fund for the Nazi War Crimes and Japanese Imperial Government Records Interagency Working Group, discusses hundreds of the 8 million-plus pages of documents released under the Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act by the CIA, FBI, NSA, Army, State Department, and other U.S. agencies. This book contains a great deal of new information about the world of intelligence, especially concerning the postwar use of war criminals by U.S. intelligence organizations. It also sheds new light on Holocaust issues, showing, for example that the Allies had knowledge of the genocide earlier than historians previously believed. By using these newly released documents to refine what was previously understood about World War II, the Holocaust, and intelligence activities during and after the war, the authors demonstrate the historical, cultural, and moral importance of the declassified information. Purchasing information: Call 1-866-272-6272, National Archives Trust Fund Board. 488 pp., 30 illus. Softcover #200120 $24.95 ISBN: 1-880875-26-8″

The Hidden History of CIA Torture: America’s Road to Abu Ghraib By Alfred W. McCoy TomDispath.com 9/9/04 “From 1950 to 1962, the CIA conducted massive, secret research into coercion and the malleability of human consciousness which, by the late fifties, was costing a billion dollars a year. Many Americans have heard about the most outlandish and least successful aspect of this research – the testing of LSD on unsuspecting subjects. While these CIA drug experiments led nowhere and the testing of electric shock as a technique led only to lawsuits, research into sensory deprivation proved fruitful indeed. In fact, this research produced a new psychological rather than physical method of torture, perhaps best described as “no-touch” torture. The Agency’s discovery was a counterintuitive breakthrough, the first real revolution in this cruel science since the seventeenth century – and thanks to recent revelations from Abu Ghraib and Guantanamo, we are now all too familiar with these methods, even if many Americans still have no idea of their history. Upon careful examination, those photographs of nude bodies expose the CIA’s most basic torture techniques – stress positions, sensory deprivation, and sexual humiliation.” http://www.tomdispatch.com/index.mhtml?pid=1795

How brainwashing came to life and thrived – Jeff Stryker – 8/1/04 The term “brainwashing” was first popularized by Edward Hunter, in his 1951 book, “Brainwashing in Red China.” Brainwashing was his translation for a Chinese term “hsi-nao,” meaning, roughly, “cleansing of the mind.” Lifton concluded that the Chinese interrogation techniques were merely time-honored methods of psychological coercion: isolation, humiliation and the repetition of propaganda.@ “Helen McGonigle, a Connecticut lawyer who represents victims of trauma and sexual abuse, knows she sounds like one of the nutters on the Internet when she talks about the history of military involvement in mind control. When asked if she thinks the government is still in the business of mind control, McGonigle responded without skipping a beat. “Absolutely,” she said. “The history of the Bluebird, Artichoke and MKULTRA definitely raise the bar of suspicion,” McGonigle said, ticking off a series of government experiments involving hypnosis, sleep deprivation and the use of psychotropic drugs. MKULTRA, underway from 1953 to 1966, involved research into mind-control agents at scores of prestigious institutions by prominent psychologists. MKULTRA scientists attempted to determine whether LSD could be aerosolized effectively; the CIA even hired a magician to teach field agents how to slip LSD into the drinks of unwitting subjects. Other experiments involved various forms of sleep deprivation and hypnosis. Consider a research question posed in CIA documents from the Bluebird experiments in the 1950s: “Could we seize a subject and in the space of an hour or two by post-H[ypnotic] control have him crash an airplane, wreck a train, etc.?”” http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2004/08/01/INGRR7UIJ31.DTL

RITUAL ABUSE IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY Psychological, Forensic, Social and Political Considerations by Randy Noblitt and Pam Perskin Noblitt Allegations of ritual abuse are universal and mental health professionals, theologians, law enforcers, scholars, victim advocates, and others struggle to comprehend the enormity of the devastation left in the wake of these heinous acts. Ritual Abuse in the Twenty-first Century addresses the concerns that naturally evolve from any discussion of this phenomenon from the perspectives of professionals, advocates, and survivors from around the world. How valid are the survivors’ stories? Is there evidence? What are the consequences of these acts to the individual and society? Why have these allegations been ignored or discredited whenever they have surfaced? The authors of these chapters respond to these and other questions in an effort to illustrate the constellation of psychological, health, legal, criminal, societal, and spiritual ramifications of ritual abuse. Chapters address current issues including ritually based crime, civil suits involving allegations of ritual abuse, that are universal. The value of understanding ritual trauma for diagnostic and treatment applications is discussed. ISBN: 978-1-934759-12-7 ISBN 10: 1-934759-12-0 Soft cover, 6 x 9, 552 pages, $39.95 US Robert D. Reed Publishers, POB 1992, Bandon, OR 97411 Phone 541 347-9882 Fax: -9883 http://www.rdrpublishers.com/catalog/item/3014102/5820690.htm

Torture of Canadian Women by Non-State Actors in the Private Sphere: A Shadow Report – Members of the Nova Scotia ‘torture free zone’ circle of the NGO Canadian Voice of Women for Peace (VOW), Linda MacDonald and Jeanne Sarson, have submitted a report to the UN Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). The report is entitled Torture of Canadian Women by Non-State Actors in the Private Sphere: A Shadow Report. The report includes Canadian women’s oral testimonies of various forms of torture they report enduring. It also presents survey findings of Canadian and non-Canadian women’s reproductive tortures. Recommendations include amendments to the Canadian Criminal Code to specifically name and criminalize acts of non-state torture; that statistical data then be kept on acts of non-state torture; that victimized persons be provided with appropriate support and resources, and research and educative interventions be implemented. The report is timely considering, for example, the UN Press Release of June 26, 2008. In this Joint Statement on the Occasion of the UN International Day in Support of Victims of Torture, it is stated that certain forms of gender-specific violence perpetrated by State and non-state actors is now recognized as falling within the definition of torture. (See http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/view01/64FB1409323506EAC1257473002F6E42?opendocument ) The Shadow Report can be accessed via the OHCHR website: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cedaw/cedaws42.htm listed under Canada then Canadian Voice of Women for Peace (VOW) or at TORTURE OF CANADIAN WOMEN BY NON-STATE ACTORS IN THE PRIVATE SPHERE: A SHADOW REPORT March, 2008….Submitted by Jeanne Sarson, MEd, BScN, RN & Linda MacDonald, MEd, BN, RN

The Institute on Violence, Abuse & Trauma (IVAT) at Alliant International University Presents: Promoting Peace; Integrating Practice, Research, and Policy – Affiliated Institutes (all day trainings by collaborating organizations) Friday and Saturday, September 12-13, 2008 Pre-Conference Workshops, Conference, and Post-Conference Workshops Sunday through Wednesday, September 14-17, 2008 For information Call: (858) 527-1860 x4270 or write IVATconf@alliant.edu One workshop at this conference will be : P2 Torture-Based Mind Control: Empirical Research, Programmer Methods, Effects & Treatment – Ellen Lacter, Randy Noblitt, Wanda Karriker, Eileen Schrader – Advanced: This workshop provides current knowledge about mind control programming, its effects on its victims, challenges in the recovery process, and effective treatment strategies and healing methods. Clinical observations made by the presenters from their extensive work with mind control survivors are supported by preliminary data obtained from the 2007 series of International Extreme Abuse. http://www.ivatcenters.org/Conferences/13th-InternationalBooklet.pdf

Forensic Aspects of Dissociative Identity Disorder – Author:Sachs, Adah & Galton, Graeme (Eds). Publisher : Karnac Books, 2008 ISBN 1855755963 “book examines the role of crime in the lives of people with Dissociative Identity Disorder” http://www.karnacbooks.com/product.php?PID=25876 In this book there is a chapter on The extreme abuse surveys: Preliminary findings regarding dissociative identity disorder authors: Becker, T.; Karriker, W.; Overkamp, B.; Rutz, C. p. 32-49 Data on the study is included in the chapter. Eighty-four percent of those saying they had been diagnosed with DID/MPD also stated that they were survivors of RA/MC. 543 stated they had been ritually abused in a satanic cult.

The CD Order Form for The Eleventh Annual Ritual Abuse, Secretive Organizations and Mind Control Conference – 2008 is now available at http://members.aol.com/smartnews/smart-2008-conference.htm

MEDIA PACKET – Torture-based, Government-sponsored Mind Control Experimentation on Children – Documentation that torture-based, government-sponsored mind control (GMC) experimentation was conducted on children during the Cold War. Data from two international surveys that give voice, visibility, and validation to survivors of these crimes against humanity….SURVEYS – EAS: Extreme Abuse Survey for Adult Survivors (An International Online Survey for Adult Survivors of Extreme Abuse) January 1 – March 30, 2007 with 1471 respondents from 31 named countries. P-EAS: Professional – Extreme Abuse Survey (An International Online Survey for Therapists, Counselors, Clergy, and Other Persons Who Have Worked Professionally with at Least One Adult Survivor of Extreme Abuse) April 1 – June 30 2007 with 451 respondents from 20 named countries. Contact: Wanda Karriker, PhD sandime@twave.net http://my.dmci.net/~casey/GovernmentSponsoredMindControlExperiments-MediaPacket.pdf

The Extreme Abuse Survey final results are online with findings, questionnaires and presentations for download as pdf-files. More than 750 pages of documentation http://extreme-abuse-survey.net/

Contains additional published data on the above study http://eassurvey.wordpress.com/extreme-abuse-survey-final-results/

mk-ultra links – Torture-based, Government-sponsored Mind Control Experimentation on Children http://eassurvey.wordpress.com/category/mk-ultra/ or http://members.aol.com/smartnews/mk-ultra.htm

Basic Information on Dissociative Identity Disorder with sections on Basic Information on DID from the DSM-IV-TR, The History of DID/MPD, Diagnosing DID, Responses to those that state that DID is iatrogenic or a social construct, MPD/DID connection to severe abuse, Recent information and DID resources http://eassurvey.wordpress.com/basic-information-on-dissociative-identity-disorder/ or http://members.aol.com/smartnews/Dissociative-Identity-Disorder.htm

Recovered Memory Data with information on recovered memory corroboration, theories on recovered memory, legal information, physiological evidence for memory suppression, replies to skeptics and books and articles on memory. http://eassurvey.wordpress.com/2008/08/22/recovered-memory-data/

 

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List of Control Mechanisms- A Truly Long List

 

Agencies, Rules and Regulations (called Regs) – often called a bureau in a bureaucracy, an agency is a division of the Executive Branch that wields the power of law in control. There exist over 112 unconstitutional agencies. They are also called politbureaus, a reference to its cousin in communism. Many unconstitutional rules and regs have the force and effect of law. See WHY REGULATIONS HARM FAMILIES. Also see KBD, Limited Federal Government and Constitution Trumps Treaties.

AHRI – American Heritage Rivers Initiative. see Water

Air – Controlling of the air we breath is included in Weapons under BioChem and ChemTrails.

Aliens – see UFO. Facts are now proven.

Assassination – see Killers. There exists a trail of suspicious, unsolved murders from the Clinton Whitehouse all the way back into Arkansas. Those presidents who opposed the Fed were assassination. Any connection?

ARDA – Advanced Research and Development Activity. See Spooks and Snoops.

Audits – truth and operations can be concealed from the taxpayer by altering budgets and audits.

Bank List – See Money.

BATF – Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms – an unconstitutional bureau. See Agencies

BBK- BBKs – Brain and Body Killers. My name for dope. Drugs are useful medicines doctors prescribe.

Biospheres – see UN List. Also see Water for that control.

Border Patrol and Immigration and Naturalization Service – see Immigration

Bill of Rights – Our rights are being eroded at an increasing pace.

BioChem Warfare List (More to follow). Also BioChem Weapons.

Borders – are lax border patrols a ploy? see Immigration. We are being overun and destroyed from within.

BLM – Bureau of Land Management. See Environment.

BSA – Bank Secrecy Act. See Money

Bureau, Bureaucracy – see Agency

CAFR – Comprehensive Annual Financial Report. Our governments are keeping two sets of books and hiding trillions of dollars while increasing taxes.

CAFRA – Civil Asset Forfeiture Reform Act, HR 1965

CALEA List –

Camps – see Prison Camps

CARA List – Conservation and Reinvestment Act. This is a confiscation of shooting places.

Carnivore List – reads our email.

CDC – Centers for Disease Control. See Medical Issues

Census – Federal law limits questions, but the Commerce Department can’t read.

CERP – Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. Is flooding farmers off their land. Also see Water.

ChemTrail List – Spraying deadly stuff on us at our expense. Not very nice people in WnDC. Clinton is out and Bush is in. I had hoped that would end that dratted spraying. But white spider webs are now falling south of Saco (Sacramento), CA. This has to be too much of a bad thing. Time to do something.

Chinagate – see Cox Report. Also see Security, National.

Chip – Implants, Microchips, Digital Angel, Mark of the Beast – a tell-tale microchip inserted into your skin

CIA – This outfit has done some weird things under Clinton’s guidance. See Spooks and Snoops.

CIPA — Childrens Internet Protection Act. Requires Internet filters. SF library refused.

CIPA – Classified Information Procedures Act. Used to conceal details of the surveillance system.

Civil Rights – Freedom or Loss of Freedom — you decide. Also see Courts

Conservationalists, TNC, IUNC, Eco-wackos – see Environment.

Constitution, constitutionality, unconstitutionality – pertaining to the Constitution.

COPPA – Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act. (See COPA.)

COPA – Child On line Protection Act. Attempt to censure the Internet.

COPS – Community Oriented Policing System.

COINTELPRO – Counterintelligence Operation. Is an old FBI anti-communism outfit. See Nat Hentoff’s Rescuing the Constitution.

Cost of Living – see Inflation. The populace is kept so busy and broke they have neither time nor money to fight the system.

Courts – Legal action may be a form of control. Judges shape the future with their interpretations. World Court is now a reality, but is being snubbed by President Bush 2. Also see Cost of Living. Liberty is discussed.

Covert Action – see Killers and Coverups

Coverups – see Killers and Coverups

Cox Report on Chinagate – The omission of this report in the Articles of Impeachment is an impeachable offense.

CBP – U.S. Bureau of Customs and Border Protection, the Border Patrol’s parent agency. see Immigration

Democracy – a form of government that feeds on itself, destroying itself from within. Like socialism, communism and fascism, democracy deteriorates into totalitarionism, which is a police state, which is a dictatorship. The Bejing government of Communist China is a perfect example. see Definitions.

DARPA – See Spooks and Snoops.

Debt – see Inflation

Definitions – handy page of modern terms.

Diesel Fuel – see Energy

Digital Angel – see Chip

DOI – Department of the Interior is trying to get a bill passed to make them a national police force for lend.

Dope – See BBK. Dope is my name for illegal drugs. Also BBK – brain and body killer. The CIA has been the biggest crook. George Hansen stated that the CIA controlled over 70%.

DPPA – Driver’s Privacy Protection Act

Drugs – See BBK. I use the names BBKs and dope.

Education – In violation of the Constitution, federal gov’t is controlling the minds of our youth.

Watch Goals 2000, STW, Workforce Investment Act (Careers Act), OBE etc. Names change frequently.

Echelon – super powerful world wide snoop system under NSA.

Ecology, ecologists, environment, environmentalists, eco-wackos, land seizure – see Environment.

Education and Schools – By controlling education, politicians control the minds.

Congress and the President are forbidden by the Constitution from touching anything about schools and education, but they continue to meddle. Goals 2000 List and STW are major factors, unconstitutional as possible, but still existing.

Also see Mind Control

EEOC – U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. The bums are now telling you what to do.

EHPA – Model State Emergency Health Powers Act. See See Medical Issues

EL – Executive Law. The list includes EOs, PDDs and all laws created by the President. Very unconstitutional. They are in the FEMA List. Also read CO6 for a list and explanation of the many names for the same type of unconstitutional laws created by presidents. President Hoover set the precendent that really got that trick rolling, and FDR ran it to the hilt. Clinton tried to catch up. Also see Security, National.

Elections – See Immigration. Voter fraud is in the millions in California alone. [fron 259]

Electricity – see Energy

ELSUR – Electronic Surveillance; refers to telephone wiretaps, hidden microphones, cameras placed in private areas, and other forms of surreptitious interception of oral, written or electronic communication. Made legal (?) by USA Patriot Act and Homeland Security. The FBI and CIA are drowning in collected info as of 2-24-04. See Spooks.

Enemy Upkeep – Preservation of an Enemy to organize public support for wars. Do everything but kill their leader. He is needed for a scapegoat. CIA was great at creating mental monsters. Osama bin Laden is one that created itself, possibly. It is difficult to overlook the fact that for 50 or so years our government stops just short of capturing the enemy leader. Also see Presidents; Spooks.

Energy – A serious control mechanism. . Also see About Yucca in the Environment List for eco-wacko controls.

English Language – American nationalism requires a national language. See Language.

Enlibra List – Governors for government controlled environment. Watch this one closely. Also see Environment.

Environment, Control through our Environment, Conservation, Eco-wackos. Someone is taking our land and stopping our food production.

EO – Executive Order. See EL.

EPA – Environmental Protection Agency – see Environment. The EPA is ready to combat terrorism. That seems a bit far fetched.

ESA – Endangered Species Act; mutant child of the EPA, which see under Environment.

EWPA – Emergency and War Powers Act. See War.

Executive Order – see EL.

Executive power grab on tap at White House? Sarah Foster at WND; on Bush; great expose’.

Exile –

Farm Subsidies – see Food Control

Fast moving bills to watch – from Rense

Fast Track – giving the President the power of Congress. Very unconstitutional.

FATF – see UN List

FBI – Federal Bureau of Investigation. See Spooks and Snoops.

FCRA – Fair Credit Reporting Act

Federalism – means States Rights over Federal Government. This is a real sore point with big government.

FEMA List – Federal Emergency Management Agency. Could be become very powerful.

FIJA List – Fully Informed Jury Association. This is a plus.

FinCEN – Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; housed in the Treasury Department

FERPA List – Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act.

FISC – Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. Works with FISA.

FISA List – Foreign Intelligence Surveillancey Act . Secret courts. Originated with Carter. Clinton added an EO. Power added through USA Patriot Act. Under that 1978 law, a secret U.S. court considers requests for searches or wiretaps, and these generally require a lower standard of proof for approval than in traditional criminal cases.

FLPMA – Federal Land Policy and Management Act. Related to Antquities Act. The procedure for granting rights-of-way across federal lands is specified.

Food Control – Klamath Basis Water Crisis, Terminator Crops, Land Control, Farm Subsidies. Also see Water.

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act – see FISA.

Forest thinning to prevent forest fires. Al Gore and his eco-wackos have caused loss of millions of acres of timber. See Environment. Bush 2 is attempting to solve this problem.

Forfeiture – laws legalize theft by the cops

Fuel – see Energy

Garden Plot – see Operation Garden Plot – control of the civilian masses.

Gasoline – see Energy

GATT – General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Set up in 1946 to lend a predictable legal structure to international commerce. See Treaties.

GLBA – Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act – see Money

GOA – Gun Owners of America. see Guns. Join this good group. Boycott NRA who caved in to CARA. This is a plus.

Goals 2000 and STW – see Education and Schools

Guns – the last step before dictatorship. When we lose our guns, it’s all over, and we are almost there.

HAARP – the weapon from Tesla. Powerful rays are bounced off the ionosphere, returning to Earth with greatly magnified power. Weather modification is possible. Not much is seen in the media.

Hate Crimes – see Political Correctness

Heating Oil – see Energy

Hegelian Dialectic – The act of creating a problem, waiting for call for help with it, then fixing it by adding one more control mechanism on the people. It is comprised of three parts: thesis, antithesis, and synthesis. Credit for isolating this control mechanism is given to Hegel. It has been in use for centuries. The terrorists are a perfect example. The federal government has allowed nearly everyone and anyone to walk across our borders. Estimates of terrorists in America are large. The Border Patrol and the INS are a joke. So now the federal government is fixing the problem by placing controls on the good American citizens through the USA Patriot and the Homeland Security laws. Both violate the Constitution grossly, but that does not seem to concern the President and Congress anymore. But no noticeable change has occurred with the Border Patrol and the INS. For at excellent discussion of the Hegelian Dialectic in use today, read Charlotte Iserbyte.

Hitler List – I have been watching Hitler history appear before my very eyes these past few years.

Homeland Security – see Office of Homeland Security

ICC – International Criminal Court. Gets power from a UN Treaty. Very dangerous.

Identity Theft – California Senate Bill 168 – SSN in California, pending in US

IMF – International Monety Fund. They give money to other nations. US is the biggest contributor. That’s you tax dollars, Folks. See Money. Also see TRANSFERRING AMERICAN WEALTH.

Immigration – The population of American citizens is stable. All increase is due to immigrants, which is in the millions. Are we being overtaken from within? Also see Voter Fraud.

INS – Immigration and Naturalization Service. The Constitution directs the federal government to protect our borders. As of 2002 they are a joke. So is the Border Patrol.

Pat Buchanan, in his book, Death of the West, predicts that the the US will be a 3rd world nation by 2050 from exploding populations other than America.

Language – Voting information was available in four languages in California in 2002. What happened to the requirement to speak and write English for citizenship?

Implants – see Chip

Income Tax, IRS — see Tax Control . Also see Inflation.

Indians, American, List

Inflation and Cost of Living – the controlled inflation rate of 5% is taking America to extinction.

Information Control – see Media and Information Control

INS – see Immigration

Insane Asylums – see Mind Control, a weapon used by FDR and away from the courts.

IUNC – International Union of Nature Conservatives. See Ecology.

Killers, Coverups and Assassinations – Politicians that cause their competition to disappear and stay disappeared. Assassinations are included in this list.

KYC – Know Your Customer – see Money

Land Control through use, ESA, EPA, Treaties, unconstitutional BLM actions

Language – What is our American language? More diversion here. Orange County city leads nation with non-English speakers

Lantern – see Magic Lantern in USA Patriot Act

Legal Process – see Courts.

MACDIS – see FRON Terror Index

MAI – Multilateral Agreement on Investments. “Trade Agreement from Hell”. Operates in conjunction with NAFTA.

Martial Law List – FISA, CALEA; Or read this for Congress’s intention

Maritime Heritage Act –

Mark of the Beast – see Chip

Media and Information Control – The mainstream media is owned and controlled by the IBLs. Bush has ordered “sensitive but unclassified” information removed immediately from government web sites.

Medical Issues, Medicine, Disease and Vaccination – Government wants power to dictate what goes in your body.

Microchips – see Chip

MEGIDDO – FBI’S PROJECT MEGIDDO – see Spooks and Snoops

Memory – see Mind Control; Scientists have determined that false memories can be planted in people’s minds.

Mental Institutions – see Mind Control, a weapon used by FDR and researched extensively since then. New development in court actions.

Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain – see MOUT

Mind Control – Used by FDR, there abounds much research and speculation on this subject.

Money – Economic control through issuance and control of money; Banks, BSA, NYC, SAR

MOUT – see SWAT Teams under War/Military

MSA – Medical Savings Account – See Patients Bill of Rights under Medical Issues

Multilateral Agreement on Investments – see MAI

National Debt – see Tax Control and Inflation. We are being taxed out of existance while one dime of income tax goes to reduce the national debt. Inflation from our Debt Money System is driving America to extinction.

National Emergency Status – see NES

National Homeland Security Agency – another step toward a police state by Bush.

Also see Office of Homeland Security and FEMA.

National ID List. Also see Chip

NES – National Security Status. See FRON Terror Index

NSC – National Safety Council – a large, special interest financed, non-governmental organization (NGO). The Council was chartered by an ill-advised Act of Congress on August 13, 1953 and is incorporated under federal law. Their charter mandates that the National Safety Council be nonpolitical and not contribute to or otherwise assist any political party or candidate. They do, however, support strong people controls by any means necessary. See Agencies.

National Security – see Security, National

National Security Directive – NSD – see EL.

NEDSS – National Emergency Disease Surveillance System – see Medical

NEPA – National Environmental Policy Act. China coal figured in on this.

NICS – National Instant Check System. See Guns

NGA – National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. In the name of Homeland Security, it is spying on America using some of the country’s most sophisticated aerial imaging equipment. It is part of the Defense Department.

NPS – National Park Service. Unconstitutional.

NRA – National Rifle Association – supported Clinton – see Guns. NRA caved into CARA. Join GOA instead.

NSA – National Security Agency. Controls Echelon, the global snoop machine. See Spooks and Snoops.

NSD – National Security Directive – see EL.

Office of Homeland Security – This one came after the terrorists plane-bombed the NY City towers. Also see USA Patriot Act.

Oil – see Energy

Operation Garden Plot – read what our dedicated public servants have planned for us.

OSHA – The Constitution prohibits the federal government from meddling with this issue.

Panama Canal – a serious breach in our Security, National, which see.

Patient’s Bill of Rights – see Medical Issues

Patriot Act – see USA Patriot Act

PDD – Presidential Decision Directive – see EL.

Pension – More money control; threats to stop paying Social Security; raiding pension funds

Pittman-Robertson Act – goes with CARA

Political Correctness and Hate Crime Laws – an old Commie Goal that may be complete.

Polls – see Surveys and Polls.

Posse Comitatus – This law and concept prevents the US military from fighting American civilians, a plus.

Power – see Energy

Powder Keg List – Explosive items of controls buried deep inside huge bills that Congress doesn’t even read.

Power Grab List

Presidential Decision Directive – PDD – see EL.

President List – list of presidents and their accomplishments at destroying our Constitution and our Constitutional Republic. A pattern is evolving. Also see EnemyUpkeep.

Prison Camps – You should be aware

Retirement – see Pension

REX ; also see Spooks

Rules and Regulations – see Agencies

SAR – Suspicious Activity Report in banking law. See Money.

Security, National – Read about the threat resulting from the loss of our Panama Canal.

Co-President Clinton sold our secrets to the enemy.
Government keeps secrets from us people concerning controlling us.
There is something wrong with this picure.

Smallpox – see Medical Issues

Social Security – see Pension

Spooks and Snoops – CIA, FBI, ad nauseam. Once an honorable institution, under Clinton the FBI discredited itself with such acts as “testilying” and false lab test reports. Megiddo Report.

States Rights – see Federalism

STOA – Scientific and Technological Options Assessment; Political control with nasty weapons;

also see FRON INDEX

STW – Sys List – School to Work. Part of the Socialist attack. Related to Goals 2000. See Education and Schools.

Surveys and Polls – very scientifically controlled. They have the answer before they start. Then they gather “documentation”.

Tax Control through the IRS. Two-thirds of the IRS income tax is wasted and lost. The remaining one-third goes to private bankers for interest only on the exponentially escalating national debt. Click on Grace Commission for more. Also see Inflation.

Terrorists – Also, take your pick from the stuff on this page. Control is the most serious development.

TNC – The Nature Conservancy. See Environment. This is a bad one that needs watching.

Treaty Power – used by Congress to sidestep the Constitution, a most unethical and unconstitutional maneuver.

UFO – Aliens and UFOs are a proven reality that government refuses to admit.

Unconstitutional – violating the Constitution.

UN LIST – Same as NWO (New World Order)

FATF – Financial Action Task Force; a UN outfit that is exerting control over Americans.

Topics has some good info.

NGO -Non Government Organization.

WEU – Western European Union, still powerful after 45 years; is with UN

WTO – World Trade Organization, wants IMF to ease payments. Money controls.

WTO List

U.S.A. Patriot Act of 2001 – Bush’s new power search law. Bye-bye 4th Amendment. Also see Homeland Security and War.

Vaccinations – see Medical Issues

Voter Fraud – runs into the millions in California alone. See Elections. Also see Immigration.

War and Military Lists

Air – Controlling of the air we breath is included in Weapons under BioChem and ChemTrails.

EWPA – Emergency and War Powers Act. Gives president dictatorial powers. We have been under national emergency rule since FDR. Bush2 is continuing the presidential power grab to wage undeclared war; Article in WnPost.

Military List
SWAT Teams – MOUT – Army training manual; Assault Teams , Compared to Russia

Unfinished Wars – The wars following WW2 have never been consumated. No ruler has been captured until Sadam, finally. Bin Laden may follow soon. See Military List, President List and Time Line.

War and Emergency Powers Act – HU 92; FEMA; agency defined; Hitler power
Weapons – Horribly weapons for control of the masses continue to be developed.

Also see the Spooks List.

Water, Drinking, Control – AHRI has given control of many of our rivers to the UN.

Weapons – see War

Wildlands Project – see Land Control

Wire Tapping List – see USA Patriot Act and Office of Homeland Security.

More Control Stuff

IBLs Rule the World – A startling statement that backs up uhuh and Forest Glen Durland.

Fire On Civilians – 1 – Weapons of Horror OUR military has waiting for us.

Fire On Civilians – 2 – Will Americans Fire On Americans? UN control is here.

Food Is Power. Control Is Imminent. Sterile seeds.

Government Assault on Free Speech! Scroll down to title. Great collection by FreeRepublic

Killer Crops. Seeds are now LEASED to farmers. The plants produce NO seeds.

Land Mine Legislation – Claire Wolfe demonstrates how Clinton hides his nasty bills in other legislation. Has Bush removed any?

Madsen has an impressive site on camps. It takes a while for it to materialize, but it is worth the wait. Scroll down to camps.

Operation Garden Plot – Laws OUR Congress has passed to control us. Thanks a lot, you Guys.

Posse Comitatus. Disagreement is the Enemy in California. Also see Cryptome (Run a search for posse.)

Resolve – My determination is set, as that of our Forefathers.

Questionaire – Would you fire on Americans?

UN is Taking our Drinking Water. Also see AHRI.

Unseen Enemy is nearly ready to tighten its death grip.

 


Mind Control in Prison and Mental Institutions (readers’ discretion advised)

 

By Harry V. Martin and David Caul

Copyright FreeAmerica and Harry V. Martin, 1995

There was just a small news announcement on the radio in early July after a short heat wave, three inmates of Vacaville Medical Facility had died in non-air conditioned cells. Two of those prisoners, the announcement said, may have died as a result of medical treatment. No media inquiries were made, no major news stories developed because of these deaths.

But what was the medical treatment that may have caused their deaths? The Medical Facility indicates they were mind control or behavior modification treatments. A deeper probe into the death of these two inmates unravels a mind-boggling tale of horror that has been part of California penal history for a long time, and one that caused national outcries two decades ago.

Mind control experiments have been part of California for decades and permeate mental institutions and prisons. But, it is not just in the penal society that mind control measures have been used. Minority children were subjected to experimentation at abandoned Nike Missile Sites, veterans who fought for American freedom were also subjected to the programs. Funding and experimentations of mind control have been part of the U.S. Health, Education and Welfare Department, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Central Intelligence Agency through the Phoenix Program, the Stanford Research Institute, the Agency for International Development, the Department of Defense, the Department of Labor, the National Institute of Mental Health, the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, and the National Science Foundation.

California has been in the forefront of mind control experimentation. Government experiments also were conducted in the Haight-Ashbury District in San Francisco at the height of the Hippy reign. In 1974, Senator Sam Erwin, of Watergate fame, headed a U.S. Senate Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights studying the subject of “Individual rights and the Federal role in behavior modification.” Though little publicity was given to this committee’s investigation, Senator Erwin issued a strong condemnation of the federal role in mind control. That condemnation, however, did not halt mind control experiments, they just received more circuitous funding.

Many of the case histories concerning individuals of whom the mind control experiments were used, show a strange concept in the minds of those seeking guinea pigs. Those subject to the mind control experiments would be given indefinite sentences, his freedom was dependent upon how well the experiment went. One individual, for example, was arrested for joyriding, given a two-year sentence and held for mind control experiments. He was held for 18 years.

Here are just a few experiments used in the mind control program:

A naked inmate is strapped down on a board. His wrists and ankles are cuffed to the board and his head is rigidly held in place by a strap around his neck and a helmet on his head. He is left in a darkened cell, unable to remove his body wastes. When a meal is delivered, one wrist is unlocked so he could feel around in the dark for his food and attempt to pour liquid down his throat without being able to lift his head.

Another experiment creates a muscle relaxant. Within 30 to 40 seconds paralysis begins to invade the small muscles of the fingers, toes, and eyes and then the inter costal muscles and diaphragm. The heart slows down to about 60 beats per minute. This condition, together with respiratory arrests, sets in for as long as two to five minutes before the drug begins to wear off. The individual remains fully conscious and is gasping for breath. It is “likened to dying, it is almost like drowning” the experiment states.

Another drug induces vomiting and was administered to prisoners who didn’t get up on time or caught swearing or lying, or even not greeting their guards formally. The treatment brings about uncontrolled vomiting that lasts from 15 minutes to an hour, accompanied by a temporary cardio vascular effect involving changes in the blood pressure.

Another deals with creating body rigidness, aching restlessness, blurred vision, severe muscular pain, trembling and fogged cognition.

The Department of Health, Education and Welfare and the U.S. Army have admitted mind control experiments. Many deaths have occurred.

In tracing the steps of government mind control experiments, the trail leads to legal and illegal usages, usage for covert intelligence operations, and experiments on innocent people who were unaware that they were being used.

By Harry V. Martin and David Caul

Second in a Series

Copyright, Napa Sentinel, 1991

EDITOR’S NOTE: The Sentinel commenced a series on mind control in early August and suspended it until September because of the extensive research required after additional information was received.

In July, two inmates died at the Vacaville Medical Facility. According to prison officials at the time, the two may have died as a result of medical treatment, that treatment was the use of mind control or behavior modification drugs. A deeper study into the deaths of the two inmates has unraveled a mind-boggling tale of horror that has been part of California penal history for a long time, and one that caused national outcries years ago.

In the August article, the Sentinel presented a graphic portrait of some of the mind control experiments that have been allowed to continue in the United States. On November 1974 a U.S. Senate Sub committee on Constitutional Rights investigated federally-funded behavior modification programs, with emphasis on federal involvement in, and the possible threat to individual constitutional rights of behavior modification, especially involving inmates in prisons and mental institutions.

The Senate committee was appalled after reviewing documents from the following sources:

Neuro-Research Foundation’s study entitled The Medical Epidemiology of Criminals.

The Center for the Study and Reduction of Violence from UCLA.

The closed adolescent treatment center.

A national uproar was created by various articles in 1974, which prompted the Senate investigation. But after all these years, the news that two inmates at Vacaville may have died from these same experiments indicates that though a nation was shocked in 1974, little was done to correct the experimentations. In 1977, a Senate subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research, chaired by Senator Ted Kennedy, focussed on the CIA’s testing of LSD on unwitting citizens. Only a mere handful of people within the CIA knew about the scope and details of the program.

To understand the full scope of the problem, it is important to study its origins. The Kennedy subcommittee learned about the CIA Operation M.K.-Ultra through the testimony of Dr. Sidney Gottlieb. The purpose of the program, accord ing to his testimony, was to “investigate whether and how it was possible to modify an individual’s behavior by covert means”. Claiming the protection of the National Security Act, Dr. Gottlieb was unwilling to tell the Senate subcommittee what had been learned or gained by these experiments.

He did state, however, that the program was initially engendered by a concern that the Soviets and other enemies of the United States would get ahead of the U.S. in this field. Through the Freedom of Information Act, researchers are now able to obtain documents detailing the M.K.-Ultra program and other CIA behavior modification projects in a special reading room located on the bottom floor of the Hyatt Regency in Rosslyn, VA.

The most daring phase of the M.K.-Ultra program involved slipping unwitting American citizens LSD in real life situations. The idea for the series of experiments originated in November 1941, when William Donovan, founder and director of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the forerunner of the CIA during World War Two. At that time the intelligence agency invested $5000 for the “truth drug” program. Experiments with scopolamine and morphine proved both unfruitful and very dangerous. The program tested scores of other drugs, including mescaline, barbituates, benzedrine, cannabis indica, to name a few.

The U.S. was highly concerned over the heavy losses of freighters and other ships in the North Atlantic, all victims of German U-boats. Information about German U-boat strategy was desperately needed and it was believed that the information could be obtained through drug-influenced interrogations of German naval P.O.W.s, in violation of the Geneva Accords.

Tetrahydrocannabinol acetate, a colorless, odorless marijuana extract, was used to lace a cigarette or food substance without detection. Initially, the experiments were done on volunteer U.S. Army and OSS personnel, and testing was also disguised as a remedy for shell shock. The volunteers became known as “Donovan’s Dreamers”. The experiments were so hush-hush, that only a few top officials knew about them. President Franklin Roosevelt was aware of the experiments. The “truth drug” achieved mixed success.

The experiments were halted when a memo was written: “The drug defies all but the most expert and search analysis, and for all practical purposes can be considered beyond analysis.” The OSS did not, however, halt the program. In 1943 field tests of the extract were being con ducted, despite the order to halt them. The most celebrated test was conducted by Captain George Hunter White, an OSS agent and ex-law enforcement official, on August Del Grazio, aka Augie Dallas, aka Dell, aka Little Augie, a New York gangster. Cigarettes laced with the acetate were offered to Augie without his knowledge of the content. Augie, who had served time in prison for assault and murder, had been one of the world’s most notorious drug dealers and smugglers. He operated an opium alkaloid factory in Turkey and he was a leader in the Italian underworld on the Lower East Side of New York. Under the influence of the drug, Augie revealed volumes of information about the under world operations, including the names of high ranking officials who took bribes from the mob. These experiments led to the encouragement of Donovan. A new memo was issued: “Cigarette experiments indicated that we had a mechanism which offered promise in relaxing prisoners to be interrogated.”

When the OSS was disbanded after the war, Captain White continued to administer behavior modifying drugs. In 1947, the CIA replaced the OSS. White’s service record indicates that he worked with the OSS, and by 1954 he was a high ranking Federal Narcotics Bureau officer who had been loaned to the CIA on a part-time basis.

White rented an apartment in Greenwich Village equipped with one-way mirrors, surveillance gadgets and disguised himself as a seaman. White drugged his acquaintances with LSD and brought them back to his apartment. In 1955, the operation shifted to San Francisco. In San Francisco, “safehouses” were established under the code name Operation Midnight Climax. Midnight Climax hired prostitute addicts who lured men from bars back to the safehouses after their drinks had been spiked with LSD. White filmed the events in the safehouses. The purpose of these “national security brothels” was to enable the CIA to experiment with the act of lovemaking for extracting information from men. The safehouse experiments continued until 1963 until CIA Inspector General John Earman criticized Richard Helms, the director of the CIA and father of the M.K.-Ultra project. Earman charged the new director John McCone had not been fully briefed on the M.K.-Ultra Project when he took office and that “the concepts involved in manipulating human behavior are found by many people within and outside the Agency to be distasteful and unethical.” He stated that “the rights and interest of U.S. citizens are placed in jeopardy”. The Inspector General stated that LSD had been tested on individuals at all social levels, high and low, native American and foreign.”

Earman’s criticisms were rebuffed by Helms, who warned, “Positive operation capacity to use drugs is diminishing owing to a lack of realistic testing. Tests were necessary to keep up with the Soviets.” But in 1964, Helms had testified before the Warren Commission investigating the assassination of President John Kennedy, that “Soviet research has consistently lagged five years behind Western research”.

Upon leaving government service in 1966, Captain White wrote a startling letter to his superior. In the letter to Dr. Gottlieb, Captain White reminisced about his work in the safehouses with LSD. His comments were frightening. “I was a very minor missionary, actually a heretic, but I toiled wholeheartedly in the vineyards because it was fun, fun, fun,” White wrote. “Where else could a red-blooded American boy lie, kill, cheat, steal, rape and pillage with the sanction and blessing of the all-highest?”

(NEXT: How the drug experiments helped bring about the rebirth of the mafia and the French Connection.)

By Harry V. Martin and David Caul

Part Three in a Series

Copyright, Napa Sentinel, 1991

Though the CIA continued to maintain drug experiments in the streets of America after the program was official cancelled, the United States reaped tremendous value from it. With George Hunter Whites connection to underworld figure Little Augie, connections were made with Mafia king-pin Lucky Luciano, who was in Dannemore Prison.

Luciano wanted freedom, the Mafia wanted drugs, and the United States wanted Sicily. The date was 1943. Augie was the go-between between Luciano and the United States War Department.

Luciano was transferred to a less harsh prison and began to be visited by representatives of the Office of Naval Intelligence and from underworld figures, such as Meyer Lansky. A strange alliance was formed between the U.S. Intelligence agencies and the Mafia, who controlled the West Side docks in New York. Luciano regained active leadership in organized crime in America.

The U.S. Intelligence community utilized Luciano’s underworld connections in Italy. In July of 1943, Allied forces launched their invasion of Sicily, the beginning push into occupied Europe. General George Patton’s Seventh Army advanced through hundreds of miles of territory that was fraught with difficulty, booby trapped roads, snipers, confusing mountain topography, all within close range of 60,000 hostile Italian troops. All this was accomplished in four days, a military “miracle” even for Patton.

Senate Estes Kefauver’s Senate Sub committee on Organized Crime asked, in 1951, how all this was possible. The answer was that the Mafia had helped to protect roads from Italian snipers, served as guides through treacherous mountain terrain, and provided needed intelligence to Patton’s army. The part of Sicily which Patton’s forces traversed had at one time been completely controlled by the Sicilian Mafia, until Benito Mussolini smashed it through the use of police repression.

Just prior to the invasion, it was hardly even able to continue shaking down farmers and shepherds for protection money. But the invasion changed all this, and the Mafia went on to play a very prominent and well-documented role in the American military occupation of Italy.

The expedience of war opened the doors to American drug traffic and Mafia domination. This was the beginning of the Mafia-U.S. Intelligence alliance, an alliance that lasts to this day and helped to support the covert operations of the CIA, such as the Iran-Contra operations. In these covert operations, the CIA would obtain drugs from South America and Southeast Asia, sell them to the Mafia and use the money for the covert purchase of military equipment. These operations accelerated when Congress cut off military funding for the Contras.

One of the Allies top occupation priorities was to liberate as many of their own soldiers from garrison duties so that they could participate in the military offensive. In order to accomplish this, Don Calogero’s Mafia were pressed into service, and in July of 1943, the Civil Affairs Control Office of the U.S. Army appointed him mayor of Villalba and other Mafia officials as mayors of other towns in Sicily.

As the northern Italian offensive continued, Allied intelligence became very concerned over the extent to which the Italian Communists resistance to Mussolini had driven Italian politics to the left. Community Party membership had doubled between 1943 and 1944, huge leftist strikes had shut down factories and the Italian underground fighting Mussolini had risen to almost 150,000 men. By mid-1944, the situation came to a head and the U.S. Army terminated arms drops to the Italian Resistance, and started appointing Mafia officials to occupation administration posts. Mafia groups broke up leftists rallies and reactivated black market operations throughout southern Italy.

Lucky Luciano was released from prison in 1946 and deported to Italy, where he rebuilt the heroin trade. The court’s decision to release him was made possible by the testimony of intelligence agents at his hearing, and a letter written by a naval officer reciting what Luciano had done for the Navy. Luciano was supposed to have served from 30 to 50 years in prison. Over 100 Mafia members were similarly deported within a couple of years.

Luciano set up a syndicate which transported morphine base from the Middle East to Europe, refined it into heroin, and then shipped it into the United States via Cuba. During the 1950’s, Marseilles, in Southern France, became a major city for the heroin labs and the Corsican syndicate began to actively cooperate with the Mafia in the heroin trade. Those became popularly known as the French Connection.

In 1948, Captain White visited Luciano and his narcotics associate Nick Gentile in Europe. Gentile was a former American gangster who had worked for the Allied Military Government in Sicily. By this time, the CIA was already subsidizing Corsican and Italian gangsters to oust Communist unions from the Port of Marseilles. American strategic planners saw Italy and southern France as extremely important for their Naval bases as a counterbalance to the growing naval forces of the Soviet Union. CIO/AFL organizer Irving Brown testified that by the time the CIA subsidies were terminated in 1953, U.S. support was no longer needed because the profits from the heroin traffic was sufficient to sustain operations.

When Luciano was originally jailed, the U.S. felt it had eliminated the world’s most effective underworld leader and the activities of the Mafia were seriously damaged. Mussolini had been waging a war since 1924 to rid the world of the Sicilian Mafia. Thousands of Mafia members were convicted of crimes and forced to leave the cities and hide out in the mountains.

Mussolini’s reign of terror had virtually eradicated the international drug syndicates. Combined with the shipping surveillance during the war years, heroin trafficking had become almost nil. Drug use in the United States, before Luciano’s release from prison, was on the verge of being entirely wiped out.

By Harry V. Martin and David Caul

Part Four in a Series

Copyright, Napa Sentinel, 1991

The U.S. government has conducted three types of mind-control experiments:

Real life experiences, such as those used on Little Augie and the LSD experiments in the safehouses of San Francisco and Greenwich Village.

Experiments on prisoners, such as in the California Medical Facility at Vacaville.

Experiments conducted in both mental hospitals and the Veterans Administration hospitals.

Such experimentation requires money, and the United States government has funnelled funds for drug experiments through different agencies, both overtly and covertly.

One of the funding agencies to contribute to the experimentation is the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA), a unit of the U.S. Justice Department and one of President Richard Nixon’s favorite pet agencies. The Nixon Administration was, at one time, putting together a program for detaining youngsters who showed a tendency toward violence in “concentration” camps. According to the Washington Post, the plan was authored by Dr. Arnold Hutschnecker. Health, Education and Welfare Secretary Robert Finch was told by John Erlichman, Chief of Staff for the Nixon White House, to implement the program. He proposed the screening of children of six years of age for tendencies toward criminality. Those who failed these tests were to be destined to be sent to the camps. The program was never implemented.

LEAA came into existence in 1968 with a huge budget to assist various U.S. law enforcement agencies. Its effectiveness, however, was not considered too great. After spending $6 billion, the F.B.I. reports general crime rose 31 percent and violent crime rose 50 percent. But little accountability was required of LEAA on how it spent its funds.

LEAA’s role in the behavior modification research began at a meeting held in 1970 in Colorado Springs. Attending that meeting were Richard Nixon, Attorney General John Mitchell, John Erlichman, H.R. Haldemann and other White House staffers. They met with Dr. Bertram Brown, director fo the National Institute of Mental Health, and forged a close collaboration between LEAA and the Institute. LEAA was a product of the Justice Department and the Institute was a product of HEW.

LEAA funded 350 projects involving medical procedures, behavior modification and drugs for delinquency control. Money from the Criminal Justice System was being used to fund mental health projects and vice versa. Eventually, the leadership responsibility and control of the Institute began to deteriorate and their scientists began to answer to LEAA alone.

The National Institute of Mental Health went on to become one of the greatest supporters of behavior modification research. Throughout the 1960’s, court calenders became blighted with lawsuits on the part of “human guinea pigs” who had been experimented upon in prisons and mental institutions. It was these lawsuits which triggered the Senate Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights investigation, headed by Senator Sam Erwin. The subcommittee’s harrowing report was virtually ignored by the news media.

Thirteen behavior modification programs were conducted by the Department of Defense. The Department of Labor had also conducted several experiments, as well as the National Science Foundation. The Veterans’ Administration was also deeply involved in behavior modification and mind control. Each of these agencies, including LEAA, and the Institute, were named in secret CIA documents as those who provided research cover for the MK-ULTRA program.

Eventually, LEAA was using much of its budget to fund experiments, including aversive techniques and psychosurgery, which involved, in some cases, irreversible brain surgery on normal brain tissue for the purpose of changing or controlling behavior and/or emotions.

Senator Erwin questioned the head of LEAA concerning ethical standards of the behavior modification projects which LEAA had been funding. Erwin was extremely dubious about the idea of the government spending money on this kind of project without strict guidelines and reasonable research supervision in order to protect the human subjects. After Senator Erwin’s denunciation of the funding polices, LEAA announced that it would no longer fund medical research into behavior modification and psychosurgery. Despite the pledge by LEAA’s director, Donald E. Santarelli, LEAA ended up funding 537 research projects dealing with behavior modification. There is strong evidence to indicate psychosurgery was still being used in prisons in the 1980’s. Immediately after the funding announcement by LEAA, there were 50 psychosurgical operations at Atmore State Prison in Alabama. The inmates became virtual zombies. The operations, according to Dr. Swan of Fisk University, were done on black prisoners who were considered politically active.

The Veterans’ Administration openly admitted that psychosurgery was a standard procedure for treatment and not used just in experiments. The VA Hospitals in Durham, Long Beach, New York, Syracuse and Minneapolis were known to employ these products on a regular basis. VA clients could typically be subject to these behavior alteration procedures against their will. The Erwin subcommittee concluded that the rights of VA clients had been violated.

LEAA also subsidized the research and development of gadgets and techniques useful to behavior modification. Much of the technology, whose perfection LEAA funded, had originally been developed and made operational for use in the Vietnam War. Companies like Bangor Punta Corporation and Walter Kidde and Co., through its subsidiary Globe Security System, adapted these devices to domestic use in the U.S. ITT was another company that domesticated the warfare technology for potential use on U.S. citizens. Rand Corporation executive Paul Baran warned that the influx back to the United State of the Vietnam War surveillance gadgets alone, not to mention the behavior modification hardware, could bring about “the most effective, oppressive police state ever created”.

By Harry V. Martin and David Caul

Fifth in a Series

Copyright, Napa Sentinel, 1991

One of the fascinating aspects of the scandals that plague the U.S. Government is the fact that so often the same names appear from scandal to scandal. From the origins of Ronald Reagan’s political career, as Governor of California, Dr. Earl Brian and Edward Meese played key advisory roles.

Dr. Brian’s name has been linked to the October Surprise and is a central figure in the government’s theft of PROMIS soft ware from INSLAW. Brian’s role touches from the Cabazon Indian scandals to United Press International. He is one of those low-profile key figures.

And, alas, his name appears again in the nation’s behavior modification and mind control experiments. Dr. Brian was Reagan’s Secretary of Health when Reagan was Governor. Dr. Brian was an advocate of state subsidies for a research center for the study of violent behavior. The center was to begin operations by mid-1975, and its research was intended to shed light on why people murder or rape, or hijack aircraft. The center was to be operated by the University of California at Los Angeles, and its primary purpose, ac cording to Dr. Brian, was to unify scattered studies on anti-social violence and possibly even touch on socially tolerated violence, such as football or war. Dr. Brian sought $1.3 million for the center.

It certainly was possible that prison inmates might be used as volunteer subjects at the center to discover the unknowns which triggered their violent behavior. Dr. Brian’s quest for the center came at the same time Governor Reagan concluded his plans to phase the state of California out of the mental hospital business by 1982. Reagan’s plan is echoed by Governor Pete Wilson today, to place the responsibility of rehabilitating young offenders squarely on the shoulders of local communities.

But as the proposal became known more publicly, a swell of controversy surrounded it. It ended in a fiasco. The inspiration for the violence center came from three doctors in 1967, five years before Dr. Brian and Governor Reagan unveiled their plans. Amidst urban rioting and civil protest, Doctors Sweet, Mark and Ervin of Harvard put forward the thesis that individuals who engage in civil disobedience possess defective or damaged brain cells. If this conclusion were applied to the American Revolution or the Women’s Rights Movement, a good portion of American society would be labeled as having brain damage.

In a letter to the Journal of the American Medical Association, they stated: “That poverty, unemployment, slum housing, and inadequate education underlie the nation’s urban riots is well known, but the obviousness of these causes may have blinded us to the more subtle role of other possible factors, including brain dysfunction in the rioters who engaged in arson, sniping and physical assault.

“There is evidence from several sources that brain dysfunction related to a focal lesion plays a significant role in the violent and assaultive behavior of thoroughly studied patients. Individuals with electroencephalographic abnormalities in the temporal region have been found to have a much greater frequency of behavioral abnormalities (such as poor impulse control, assaultiveness, and psychosis) than is present in people with a normal brain wave pattern.”

Soon after the publication in the Journal, Dr. Ervin and Dr. Mark published their book Violence and the Brain, which included the claim that there were as many as 10 million individuals in the United States “who suffer from obvious brain disease”. They argued that the data of their book provided a strong reason for starting a program of mass screening of Americans.

“Our greatest danger no longer comes from famine or communicable disease. Our greatest danger lies in ourselves and in our fellow humans…we need to develop an ‘early warning test’ of limbic brain function to detect those humans who have a low threshold for impulsive violence…Violence is a public health problem, and the major thrust of any program dealing with violence must be toward its prevention,” they wrote.

The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration funded the doctors $108,000 and the National Institute of Mental Health kicked in another $500,000, under pressure from Congress. They believed that psychosurgery would inevitably be performed in connection with the program, and that, since it irreversibly impaired people’s emotional and intellectual capacities, it could be used as an instrument of repression and social control.

The doctors wanted screening centers established throughout the nation. In California, the publicity associated with the doctors’ report, aided in the development of The Center for the study and Reduction of Violence. Both the state and LEAA provided the funding. The center was to serve as a model for future facilities to be set up throughout the United States.

The Director of the Neurophyschiatric Institute and chairman of the Department of Psychiatry at UCLA, Dr. Louis Jolyon West was selected to run the center. Dr. West is alleged to have been a contract agent for the CIA, who, as part of a network of doctors and scientists, gathered intelligence on hallucinogenic drugs, including LSD, for the super-secret MK-ULTRA program. Like Captain White (see part three of the series), West conducted LSD experiments for the CIA on unwitting citizens in the safehouses of San Francisco. He achieved notoriety for his injection of a massive dose of LSD into an elephant at the Oklahoma Zoo, the elephant died when West tried to revive it by administering a combination of drugs.

Dr. West was further known as the psychiatrist who was called upon to examine Jack Ruby, Lee Harvey Oswald’s assassin. It was on the basis of West’s diagnosis that Ruby was compelled to be treated for mental disorders and put on happy pills. The West examination was ordered after Ruby began to say that he was part of a right-wing conspiracy to kill President John Kennedy. Two years after the commencement of treatment for mental disorder, Ruby died of cancer in prison.

After January 11, 1973, when Governor Reagan announced plans for the Violence Center, West wrote a letter to the then Director of Health for California, J. M. Stubblebine.

“Dear Stub:

“I am in possession of confidential in formation that the Army is prepared to turn over Nike missile bases to state and local agencies for non-military purposes. They may look with special favor on health-related applications.

“Such a Nike missile base is located in the Santa Monica Mountains, within a half-hour’s drive of the Neuropsychiatric Institute. It is accessible, but relatively remote. The site is securely fenced, and includes various buildings and improvements, making it suitable for prompt occupancy.

“If this site were made available to the Neurophyschiatric Institute as a research facility, perhaps initially as an adjunct to the new Center for the Prevention of Violence, we could put it to very good use. Comparative studies could be carried out there, in an isolated but convenient location, of experimental or model programs for the alteration of undesirable behavior.

“Such programs might include control of drug or alcohol abuse, modification of chronic anti-social or impulsive aggressiveness, etc. The site could also accommodate conferences or retreats for instruction of selected groups of mental-health related professionals and of others (e.g., law enforcement personnel, parole officers, special educators) for whom both demonstration and participation would be effective modes of instruction.

“My understanding is that a direct request by the Governor, or other appropriate officers of the State, to the Secretary of Defense (or, of course, the President), could be most likely to produce prompt results.”

Some of the planned areas of study for the Center included:

Studies of violent individuals.

Experiments on prisoners from Vacaville and Atascadero, and hyperkinetic children.

Experiments with violence-producing and violent inhibiting drugs.

Hormonal aspects of passivity and aggressiveness in boys.

Studies to discover and compare norms of violence among various ethnic groups.

Studies of pre-delinquent children.

It would also encourage law enforcement to keep computer files on pre-delinquent children, which would make possible the treatment of children before they became delinquents.

The purpose of the Violence Center was not just research. The staff was to include sociologists, lawyers, police officers, clergymen and probation officers. With the backing of Governor Reagan and Dr. Brian, West had secured guarantees of prisoner volunteers from several California correctional institutions, including Vacaville. Vacaville and Atascadero were chosen as the primary sources for the human guinea pigs. These institutions had established a reputation, by that time, of committing some of the worst atrocities in West Coast history. Some of the experimentations differed little from what the Nazis did in the death camps.

(NEXT: What happened to the Center?)

By Harry V. Martin and David Caul

Sixth in a Series

Copyright, Napa Sentinel, 1991

Dr. Earl Brian, Governor Ronald Reagan’s Secretary of Health, was adamant about his support for mind control centers in California. He felt the behavior modification plan of the Violence Control Centers was important in the prevention of crime.

The Violence Control Center was actually the brain child of William Herrmann as part of a pacification plan for California. A counter insurgency expert for Systems Development Corporation and an advisor to Governor Reagan, Herrmann worked with the Stand Research Institute, the RAND Corporation, and the Hoover Center on Violence. Herrman was also a CIA agent who is now serving an eight year prison sentence for his role in a CIA counterfeiting operation. He was also directly linked with the Iran-Contra affair according to government records and Herrmann’s own testimony.

In 1970, Herrmann worked with Colston Westbrook as his CIA control officer when Westbrook formed and implemented the Black Cultural Association at the Vacaville Medical Facility, a facility which in July experienced the death of three inmates who were forcibly subjected to behavior modification drugs. The Black Cultural Association was ostensibly an education program designed to instill black pride identity in prisons, the Association was really a cover for an experimental behavior modification pilot project designed to test the feasibility of programming unstable prisoners to become more manageable.

Westbrook worked for the CIA in Vietnam as a psychological warfare expert, and as an advisor to the Korean equivalent of the CIA and for the Lon Nol regime in Cambodia. Between 1966 and 1969, he was an advisor to the Vietnamese Police Special Branch under the cover of working as an employee of Pacific Architects and Engineers.

His “firm” contracted the building of the interrogation/torture centers in every province of South Vietnam as part of the CIA’s Phoenix Program. The program was centered around behavior modification experiments to learn how to extract information from prisoners of war, a direct violation of the Geneva Accords.

Westbrook’s most prominent client at Vacaville was Donald DeFreeze, who be tween 1967 and 1969, had worked for the Los Angeles Police Department’s Public Disorder Intelligence unit and later became the leader of the Symbionese Liberation Army. Many authorities now believe that the Black Cultural Association at Vacaville was the seedling of the SLA. Westbrook even designed the SLA logo, the cobra with seven heads, and gave De Freeze his African name of Cinque. The SLA was responsible for the assassination of Marcus Foster, superintendent of School in Oakland and the kidnapping of Patty Hearst.

As a counterinsurgency consultant for Systems Development Corporation, a security firm, Herrmann told the Los Angeles Times that a good computer intelligence system “would separate out the activist bent on destroying the system” and then develop a master plan “to win the hearts and minds of the people”. The San Francisco-based Bay Guardian, recently identified Herrmann as an international arms dealer working with Iran in 1980, and possibly involved in the October Surprise. Herrmann is in an English prison for counterfeiting. He allegedly met with Iranian officials to ascertain whether the Iranians would trade arms for hostages held in Lebanon.

The London Sunday Telegraph confirmed Herrmann’s CIA connections, tracing them from 1976 to 1986. He also worked for the FBI. This information was revealed in his London trial.

In the 1970’s, Dr. Brian and Herrmann worked together under Governor Reagan on the Center for the Study and Reduction of Violence, and then, a decade later, again worked under Reagan. Both men have been identified as working for Reagan with the Iranians.

The Violence Center, however, died an agonizing death. Despite the Ervin Senate Committee investigation and chastation of mind control, the experiments continued. But when the Watergate scandal broke in the early 1970’s, Washington felt it was too politically risky to continue to push for mind control centers.

Top doctors began to withdraw from the proposal because they felt that there were not enough safeguards. Even the Law Enforcement Assistance Agency, which funded the program, backed out, stating, the proposal showed “little evidence of established research ability of the kind of level necessary for a study of this cope”.

Eventually it became known that control of the Violence Center was not going to rest with the University of California, but instead with the Department of Corrections and other law enforcement officials. This information was released publicly by the Committee Opposed to Psychiatric Abuse of Prisoners. The disclosure of the letter resulted in the main backers of the program bowing out and the eventual demise of the center.

Dr. Brian’s final public statement on the matter was that the decision to cut off funding represented “a callous disregard for public safety”. Though the Center was not built, the mind control experiments continue to this day.

(NEXT: What these torturous drugs do.)

By Harry V. Martin and David Caul

Seventh in a Series

Copyright, Napa Sentinel, 1991

The Central Intelligence Agency held two major interests in use of L.S.D. to alter normal behavior patterns. The first interest centered around obtaining information from prisoners of war and enemy agents, in contravention of the Geneva Accords. The second was to deter the effectiveness of drugs used against the enemy on the battlefield.

The MK-ULTRA program was originally run by a small number of people within the CIA known as the Technical Services Staff (TSS). Another CIA department, the Office of Security, also began its own testing program. Friction arose and then infighting broke out when the Office of Security commenced to spy on TSS people after it was learned that LSD was being tested on unwitting Americans.

Not only did the two branches disagree over the issue of testing the drug on the unwitting, they also disagreed over the issue of how the drug was actually to be used by the CIA. The office of Security envisioned the drug as an interrogation weapon. But the TSS group thought the drug could be used to help destabilize another country, it could be slipped into the food or beverage of a public official in order to make him behave foolishly or oddly in public. One CIA document reveals that L.S.D. could be administered right before an official was to make a public speech.

Realizing that gaining information about the drug in real life situations was crucial to exploiting the drug to its fullest, TSS started conducting experiments on its own people. There was an extensive amount of self-experimentation. The Office of Security felt the TSS group was playing with fire, especially when it was learned that TSS was prepared to spike an annual office Christmas party punch with LSD, the Christmas party of the CIA. L.S.D. could produce serious insanity for periods of eight to 18 hours and possibly longer.

One of the “victims” of the punch was agent Frank Olson. Having never had drugs before, L.S.D. took its toll on Olson. He reported that, every automobile that came by was a terrible monster with fantastic eyes, out to get him personally. Each time a car passed he would huddle down against a parapet, terribly frightened. Olson began to behave erratically. The CIA made preparation to treat Olson at Chestnut Lodge, but before they could, Olson checked into a New York hotel and threw himself out from his tenth story room. The CIA was ordered to cease all drug testing.

Mind control drugs and experiments were torturous to the victims. One of three inmates who died in Vacaville Prison in July was scheduled to appear in court in an attempt to stop forced administration of a drug, the very drug that may have played a role in his death.

Joseph Cannata believed he was making progress and did not need forced dosages of the drug Haldol. The Solano County Coroner’s Office said that Cannata and two other inmates died of hyperthermia, extremely elevated body temperature. Their bodies all had at least 108 degrees temperature when they died. The psychotropic drugs they were being forced to take will elevate body temperature.

Dr. Ewen Cameron, working at McGill University in Montreal, used a variety of experimental techniques, including keeping subjects unconscious for months at a time, administering huge electroshocks and continual doses of L.S.D.

Massive lawsuits developed as a result of this testing, and many of the subjects who suffered trauma had never agreed to participate in the experiments. Such CIA experiments infringed upon the much-honored Nuremberg Code concerning medical ethics. Dr. Camron was one of the members of the Nuremberg Tribunal.

L.S.D. research was also conducted at the Addiction Research Center of the U.S. Public Health Service in Lexington, Kentucky. This institution was one of several used by the CIA. The National Institute of Mental Health and the U.S. Navy funded this operation. Vast supplies of L.S.D. and other hallucinogenic drugs were required to keep the experiments going. Dr. Harris Isbell ran the program. He was a member of the Food and Drug Administration’s Advisory Committee on the Abuse of Depressant and Stimulants Drugs. Almost all of the inmates were black. In many cases, L.S.D. dosage was increased daily for 75 days.

Some 1500 U.S. soldiers were also victims of drug experimentation. Some claimed they had agreed to become guinea pigs only through pressure from their superior officers. Many claimed they suffered from severe depression and other psychological stress.

One such soldier was Master Sergeant Jim Stanley. L.S.D. was put in Stanley’s drinking water and he freaked out. Stanley’s hallucinations continued even after he returned to his regular duties. His service record suffered, his marriage went on the rocks and he ended up beating his wife and children. It wasn’t until 17 years later that Stanley was informed by the military that he had been an L.S.D. experiment. He sued the government, but the Supreme Court ruled no soldier could sue the Army for the L.S.D. experiments. Justice William Brennen disagreed with the Court decision. He wrote, “Experimentation with unknowing human subjects is morally and legally unacceptable.”

Private James Thornwell was given L.S.D. in a military test in 1961. For the next 23 years he lived in a mental fog, eventually drowning in a Vallejo swimming pool in 1984. Congress had set up a $625,000 trust fund for him. Large scale L.S.D. tests on American soldiers were conducted at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland, Fort Benning, Georgia, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, and in Europe and the Pacific. The Army conducted a series of L.S.D. tests at Fort Bragg in North Carolina. The purpose of the tests were to ascertain how well soldiers could perform their tasks on the battlefield while under the influence of L.S.D. At Fort McClellan, Alabama, 200 officers in the Chemical Corps were given L.S.D. in order to familiarize them with the drug’s effects. At Edgewood Arsenal, soldiers were given L.S.D. and then confined to sensory deprivation chambers and later exposed to a harsh interrogation sessions by intelligence people. In these sessions, it was discovered that soldiers would cooperate if promised they would be allowed to get off the L.S.D.

In Operation Derby Hat, foreign nationals accused of drug trafficking were given L.S.D. by the Special Purpose Team, with one subject begging to be killed in order to end his ordeal. Such experiments were also conducted in Saigon on Viet Cong POWs. One of the most potent drugs in the U.S. arsenal is called BZ or quinuclidinyl benzilate. It is a long-lasting drug and brings on a litany of psychotic experiences and almost completely isolates any person from his environment. The main effects of BZ last up to 80 hours compared to eight hours for L.S.D. Negative after-effects may persist for up to six weeks.

The BZ experiments were conducted on soldiers at Edgewood Arsenal for 16 years. Many of the “victims” claim that the drug permanently affected their lives in a negative way. It so disorientated one paratrooper that he was found taking a shower in his uniform and smoking a cigar. BZ was eventually put in hand grenades and a 750 pound cluster bomb. Other configurations were made for mortars, artillery and missiles. The bomb was tested in Vietnam and CIA documents indicate it was prepared for use by the U.S. in the event of large-scale civilian uprisings.

In Vacaville, psychosurgery has long been a policy. In one set of cases, experimental psychosurgery was conducted on three inmates, a black, a Chicano and a white person. This involved the procedure of pushing electrodes deep into the brain in order to determine the position of defective brain cells, and then shooting enough voltage into the suspected area to kill the defective cells. One prisoner, who appeared to be improving after surgery, was released on parole, but ended up back in prison. The second inmate became violent and there is no information on the third inmate.

Vacaville also administered a “terror drug” Anectine as a way of “suppressing hazardous behavior”. In small doses, Anectine serves as a muscle relaxant; in huge does, it produces prolonged seizure of the respiratory system and a sensation “worse than dying”. The drug goes to work within 30 to 40 seconds by paralyzing the small muscles of the fingers, toes, and eyes, and then moves into the the intercostal muscles and the diaphragm. The heart rate subsides to 60 beats per minute, respiratory arrest sets in and the patient remains completely conscious throughout the ordeal, which lasts two to five minutes. The experiments were also used at Atascadero.

Several mind altering drugs were originally developed for non-psychoactive purposes. Some of these drugs are Phenothiazine and Thorzine. The side effects of these drugs can be a living hell. The impact includes the feeling of drowsiness, disorientation, shakiness, dry mouth, blurred vision and an inability to concentrate. Drugs like Prolixin are described by users as “sheer torture” and “becoming a zombie”.

The Veterans Administration Hospital has been shown by the General Accounting Office to apply heavy dosages of psychotherapeutic drugs. One patient was taking eight different drugs, three antipsychotic, two antianxiety, one antidepressant, one sedative and one anti-Parkinson. Three of these drugs were being given in dosages equal to the maximum recommended. Another patient was taking seven different drugs. One report tells of a patient who refused to take the drug. “I told them I don’t want the drug to start with, they grabbed me and strapped me down and gave me a forced intramuscular shot of Prolixin. They gave me Artane to counteract the Prolixin and they gave me Sinequan, which is a kind of tranquilizer to make me calm down, which over calmed me, so rather than letting up on the medication, they then gave me Ritalin to pep me up.”

Prolixin lasts for two weeks. One patient describes how the drug does not calm or sedate nerves, but instead attacks from so deep inside you, you cannot locate the source of the pain. “The drugs turn your nerves in upon yourself. Against your will, your resistance, your resolve, are directed at your own tissues, your own muscles, reflexes, etc..” The patient continues, “The pain grinds into your fiber, your vision is so blurred you cannot read. You ache with restlessness, so that you feel you have to walk, to pace. And then as soon as you start pacing, the opposite occurs to you, you must sit and rest. Back and forth, up and down, you go in pain you cannot locate. In such wretched anxiety you are overwhelmed because you cannot get relief even in breathing.”

By Harry V. Martin and David Caul

Eighth in a Series

Copyright, Napa Sentinel, 1991

October 15, 1991

“We need a program of psychosurgery for political control of our society. The purpose is physical control of the mind. Everyone who deviates from the given norm can be surgically mutilated.

“The individual may think that the most important reality is his own existence, but this is only his personal point of view. This lacks historical perspective.

“Man does not have the right to develop his own mind. This kind of liberal orientation has great appeal. We must electrically control the brain. Some day armies and generals will be controlled by electric stimulation of the brain.” These were the remarks of Dr. Jose Delgado as they appeared in the February 24, 1974 edition of the Congressional Record, No. 26., Vol. 118.

Despite Dr. Delgado’s outlandish statements before Congress, his work was financed by grants from the Office of Naval Research, the Air Force Aero-Medical Research Laboratory, and the Public Health Foundation of Boston.

Dr. Delgado was a pioneer of the technology of Electrical Stimulation of the Brain (ESB). The New York Times ran an article on May 17, 1965 entitled Matador With a Radio Stops Wild Bull. The story details Dr. Delgado’s experiments at Yale University School of Medicine and work in the field at Cordova, Spain. The New York Times stated:

“Afternoon sunlight poured over the high wooden barriers into the ring, as the brave bull bore down on the unarmed matador, a scientist who had never faced fighting bull. But the charging animal’s horn never reached the man behind the heavy red cape. Moments before that could happen, Dr. Delgado pressed a button on a small radio transmitter in his hand and the bull braked to a halt. Then he pressed another button on the transmitter, and the bull obediently turned to the right and trotted away. The bull was obeying commands in his brain that were being called forth by electrical stimulation by the radio signals to certain regions in which fine wires had been painlessly planted the day before.”

According to Dr. Delgado, experiments of this type have also been performed on humans. While giving a lecture on the Brain in 1965, Dr. Delgado said, “Science has developed a new methodology for the study and control of cerebral function in animals and humans.”

The late L.L. Vasiliev, professor of physiology at the University of Leningrad wrote in a paper about hypnotism: “As a control of the subject’s condition, when she was outside the laboratory in another set of experiments, a radio set was used. The results obtained indicate that the method of using radio signals substantially enhances the experimental possibilities.” The professor continued to write, “I.F. Tomaschevsky (a Russian physiologist) carried out the first experiments with this subject at a distance of one or two rooms, and under conditions that the participant would not know or suspect that she would be experimented with. In other cases, the sender was not in the same house, and someone else observed the subject’s behavior. Subsequent experiments at considerable distances were successful. One such experiment was carried out in a park at a distance. Mental suggestions to go to sleep were complied with within a minute.”

The Russian experiments in the control of a person’s mind through hypnosis and radio waves were conducted in the 1930s, some 30 years before Dr. Delgado’s bull experiment. Dr. Vasiliev definitely demonstrated that radio transmission can produce stimulation of the brain. It is not a complex process. In fact, it need not be implanted within the skull or be productive of stimulation of the brain, itself. All that is needed to accomplish the radio control of the brain is a twitching muscle. The subject becomes hypnotized and a muscle stimulant is implanted. The subject, while still under hypnosis, is commanded to respond when the muscle stimulant is activated, in this case by radio transmission.

Lincoln Lawrence wrote a book entitled Were We Controlled? Lawrance wrote, “If the subject is placed under hypnosis and mentally programmed to maintain a determination eventually to perform one specific act, perhaps to shoot someone, it is suggested thereafter, each time a particular muscle twitches in a certain manner, which is then demonstrated by using the transmitter, he will increase this determination even more strongly. As the hypnotic spell is renewed again and again, he makes it his life’s purpose to carry out this act until it is finally achieved. Thus are the two complementary aspects of Radio-Hypnotic Intracerebral Control (RHIC) joined to reinforce each other, and perpetuate the control, until such time as the controlled behavior is called for. This is done by a second session with the hypnotist giving final instructions. These might be reinforced with radio stimulation in more frequent cycles. They could even carry over the moments after the act to reassure calm behavior during the escape period, or to assure that one conspirator would not indicate that he was aware of the co-conspirator’s role, or that he was even acquainted with him.”

RHIC constitutes the joining of two well known tools, the radio part and the hypnotism part. People have found it difficult to accept that an individual can be hypnotized to perform an act which is against his moral principles. Some experiments have been conducted by the U.S. Army which show that this popular perception is untrue. The chairman of the Department of Psychology at Colgate University, Dr. Estabrooks, has stated, “I can hypnotize a man without his knowledge or consent into committing treason against the United States.” Estabrooks was one of the nation’s most authoritative sources in the hypnotic field. The psychologist told officials in Washington that a mere 200 well trained hypnotists could develop an army of mind-controlled sixth columnists in wartime United States. He laid out a scenario of an enemy doctor placing thousands of patients under hypnotic mind control, and eventually programming key military officers to follow his assignment. Through such maneuvers, he said, the entire U.S. Army could be taken over. Large numbers of saboteurs could also be created using hypnotism through the work of a doctor practicing in a neighborhood or foreign born nationals with close cultural ties with an enemy power.

Dr. Estabrooks actually conducted experiments on U.S. soldiers to prove his point. Soldiers of low rank and little formal education were placed under hypnotism and their memories tested. Surprisingly, hypnotists were able to control the subjects’ ability to retain complicated verbal information. J. G. Watkins followed in Estabrooks steps and induced soldiers of lower rank to commit acts which conflicted not only with their moral code, but also the military code which they had come to accept through their basic training. One of the experiments involved placing a normal, stable army private in a deep trance. Watkins was trying to see if he could get the private to attack a superior officer, a cardinal sin in the military. While the private was in a deep trance, Watkins told him that the officer sitting across from him was an enemy soldier who was going to attempt to kill him. In the private’s mind, it was a kill or be killed situation. The private immediately jumped up and grabbed the officer by the throat. The experiment was repeated several times, and in one case the man who was hypnotized and the man who was attacked were very close friends. The results were always the same. In one experiment, the hypnotized subject pulled out a knife and nearly stabbed another person.

Watkins concluded that people could be induced to commit acts contrary to their morality if their reality was distorted by the hypnotism. Similar experiments were conducted by Watkins using WACs exploring the possibility of making military personnel divulge military secrets. A related experiment had to be discontinued because a researcher, who had been one of the subjects, was exposing numerous top-secret projects to his hypnotist, who did not have the proper security clearance for such information. The information was divulged before an audience of 200 military personnel.

(NEXT: School for Assassins)

Mind Control: a Navy school for assassins

By Harry V. Martin and David Caul

Ninth in a Series

Copyright, Napa Sentinel, 1991

Tuesday, October 22, 1991

In mans quest to control the behavior of humans, there was a great breakthrough established by Pavlov, who devised a way to make dogs salivate on cue. He perfected his conditioning response technique by cutting holes in the cheeks of dogs and measured the amount they salivated in response to different stimuli. Pavlov verified that “quality, rate and frequency of the salivation changed depending upon the quality, rate and frequency of the stimuli.”

Though Pavlov’s work falls far short of human mind control, it did lay the groundwork for future studies in mind and behavior control of humans. John B. Watson conducted experiments in the United States on an 11-month-old infant. After allowing the infant to establish a rapport with a white rat, Watson began to beat on the floor with an iron bar every time the infant came in contact with the rat. After a time, the infant made the association between the appearance of the rat and the frightening sound, and began to cry every time the rat came into view. Eventually, the infant developed a fear of any type of small animal. Watson was the founder of the behaviorist school of psychology.

“Give me the baby, and I’ll make it climb and use its hands in constructing buildings or stone or wood. I’ll make it a thief, a gunman or a dope fiend. The possibilities of shaping in any direction are almost endless. Even gross differences in anatomical structure limits are far less than you may think. Make him a deaf mute, and I will build you a Helen Keller. Men are built, not born,” Watson proclaimed. His psychology did not recognize inner feelings and thoughts as legitimate objects of scientific study, he was only interested in overt behavior.

Though Watson’s work was the beginning of mans attempts to control human actions, the real work was done by B.F. Skinner, the high priest of the behaviorists movement. The key to Skinner’s work was the concept of operant conditioning, which relied on the notion of reinforcement, all behavior which is learned is rooted in either a positive or negative response to that action. There are two corollaries of operant conditioning” Aversion therapy and desensitization.

Aversion therapy uses unpleasant reinforcement to a response which is undesirable. This can take the form of electric shock, exposing the subject to fear producing situations, and the infliction of pain in general. It has been used as a way of “curing” homosexuality, alcoholism and stuttering. Desensitization involves forcing the subject to view disturbing images over and over again until they no longer produce any anxiety, then moving on to more extreme images, and repeating the process over again until no anxiety is produced. Eventually, the subject becomes immune to even the most extreme images. This technique is typically used to treat people’s phobias. Thus, the violence shown on T.V. could be said to have the unsystematic and unintended effect of desensitization.

Skinnerian behaviorism has been accused of attempting to deprive man of his free will, his dignity and his autonomy. It is said to be intolerant of uncertainty in human behavior, and refuses to recognize the private, the ineffable, and the unpredictable. It sees the individual merely as a medical, chemical and mechanistic entity which has no comprehension of its real interests.

Skinner believed that people are going to be manipulated. “I just want them to be manipulated effectively,” he said. He measured his success by the absence of resistance and counter control on the part of the person he was manipulating. He thought that his techniques could be perfected to the point that the subject would not even suspect that he was being manipulated.

Dr. James V. McConnel, head of the Department of Mental Health Research at the University of Michigan, said, “The day has come when we can combine sensory deprivation with the use of drugs, hypnosis, and the astute manipulation of reward and punishment to gain almost absolute control over an individual’s behavior. We want to reshape our society drastically.”

A U.S. Navy psychologist, who claims that the Office of Naval Intelligence had taken convicted murderers from military prisons, used behavior modification techniques on them, and then relocated them in American embassies throughout the world. Just prior to that time, the U.S. Senate Intelligence Committee had censured the CIA for its global political assassination plots, including plots against Fidel Castro. The Navy psychologist was Lt. Commander Thomas Narut of the U.S. Regional Medical Center in Naples, Italy. The information was divulged at an Oslo NATO conference of 120 psychologists from the eleven nation alliance. According to Dr. Narut, the U.S. Navy was an excellent place for a researcher to find “captive personnel” whom they could could use as guinea pigs in experiments. The Navy provided all the funding necessary, according to Narut.

Dr. Narut, in a question and answer session with reporters from many nations, revealed how the Navy was secretly programming large numbers of assassins. He said that the men he had worked with for the Navy were being prepared for commando-type operations, as well as covert operations in U.S. embassies worldwide. He described the men who went through his program as “hit men and assassins” who could kill on command.

Careful screening of the subjects was accomplished by Navy psychologists through the military records, and those who actually received assignments where their training could be utilized, were drawn mainly from submarine crews, the paratroops, and many were convicted murderers serving military prison sentences. Several men who had been awarded medals for bravery were drafted into the program.

The assassins were conditioned through “audio-visual desensitization”. The process involved the showing of films of people being injured or killed in a variety of ways, starting with very mild depictions, leading up to the more extreme forms of mayhem. Eventually, the subjects would be able to detach their feelings even when viewing the most horrible of films. The conditioning was most successful when applied to “passive-aggressive” types, and most of these ended up being able to kill without any regrets. The prime indicator of violent tendencies was the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Dr. Narut knew of two Navy programming centers, the neuropsychiatric laboratory in San Diego and the U.S. Regional Medical Center in Italy, where he worked.

During the audio-visual desensitization programming, restraints were used to force the subject to view the films. A device was used on the subjects eyelids to prevent him from blinking. Typically, the preliminary film was on an African youth being ritualistically circumcised with a dull knife and without any anesthetic. The second film showed a sawmill scene in which a man accidentally cut off his fingers.

In addition to the desensitization films, the potential assassins underwent programming to create prejudicial attitude in the men, to think of their future enemies, especially the leaders of these countries, as sub-human. Films and lectures were presented demeaning the culture and habits of the people of the countries where it had been decided they would be sent.

After his NATO lecture, Dr. Narut disappeared. He could not be located. Within a week of so after the lecture, the Pentagon issued an emphatic denial that the U.S. Navy had “engaged in psychological training or other types of training of personnel as assassins.” They disavowed the programming centers in San Diego and Naples and stated they were unable to locate Narut, but did provide confirmation that he was a staff member of the U.S. Regional Medical Center in Naples.

Dr. Alfred Zitani, an American delegate to the Oslo conference, did verify Narut’s remarks and they were published in the Sunday Times.

Sometime later, Dr. Narut surfaced again in London and recanted his remarks, stating that he was “talking in theoretical and not practical terms.” Shortly thereafter, the U.S. Naval headquarters in London issued a statement indicating that Dr. Narut’s remarks at the NATO conference should be discounted because he had “personal problems”. Dr. Narut never made any further public statements about the program.

During the NATO conference in Oslo, Dr. Narut had remarked that the reason he was divulging the information was because he believed that the information was coming out anyway. The doctor was referring to the disclosure by a Congressional subcommittee which were then appearing in the press concerning various CIA assassination plots. However, what Dr. Narut had failed to realize at the time, was that the Navy’s assassination plots were not destined to be revealed to the public at that time.

(To be continued.)

Soviets, U.S. both using mind control methods

By Harry V. Martin and David Caul

Tenth in a Series

Copyright, Napa Sentinel, 1991

November 5, 1991

There were three scientists who pioneered the work of using an electromagnetic field to control human behavior. Their work began 25 years ago. These three were Dr. Jose Delgado, psychology professor at Yale University; Dr. W. Ross Adey, a physiologist at the Brain Research Institute at UCLA; and Dr. Wilder Penfield, a Canadian.

Dr. Penfield’s experiments consisted of the implantation of electrodes deep into the cortexes of epilepsy patients who were to undergo surgery; he was able to drastically improve the memories of these patients through electrical stimulation. Dr. Adey implanted transmitters in the brains of cats and chimpanzees that could send signals to a receiver regarding the electrical activity of the brain; additional radio signals were sent back into the brains of the animals which modified their behavior at the direction of the doctor. Dr. Delgado was able to stop and turn a charging bull through the use of an implanted radio receiver.

Other experiments using platinum, gold and stainless steel electrode implants enabled researchers to induce total madness in cats, put monkeys into a stupor, or to set human beings jerking their arms up and down. Much of Delgado’s work was financed by the CIA through phony funding conduits masking themselves as charitable organizations.

Following the successes of Delgado’s work, the CIA set up their own research program in the field of electromagnetic behavior modification under the code name Sleeping Beauty. With the guidance of Dr. Ivor Browning, a laboratory was set up in New Mexico, specializing in working with the hypothalamus or “sweet spot” of the brain. Here it was found that stimulating this area could produce intense euphoria.

Dr. Browning was able to wire a radio receiver-amplifier into the “sweet spot” of a donkey which picked up a five-micro-amp signal, such that he could create intense happiness in the animal. Using the jolts of happiness as an “electronic carrot”, Browning was able to send the donkey up a 2000 foot New Mexico mountain and back to its point of origin. When the donkey was proceeding up the path toward its destination, it was rewarded; when it deviated, the signal stopped. “You’ve never seen a donkey so eager to keep on course in your whole life,” Dr. Browning exclaimed.

The CIA utilized the electronic carrot technique in getting trained pigeons to fly miniature microphone-transmitters to the ledge of a KGB safe house where the devices monitored conversations for months. There was a move within the CIA to conduct further experiments on humans, foreigners and prisoners, but officially the White House vetoed the idea as being unethical.

In May 1989, it was learned by the CIA that the KGB was subjecting people undergoing interrogation to electromagnetic fields, which produced a panic reaction, thereby bringing them closer to breaking down under questioning. The subjects were not told that they were being placed under the influence of these beams. A few years earlier, Dr. Ross Adey released photographs and a fact sheet concerning what he called the Russian Lida machine. This consisted of a small transmitter emitting 10-hertz waves which makes the subject susceptibile to hypnotic suggestion. The device utilized the outmoded vacuum-tube design. American POWs in Korea have indicated that similar devices had been used for interrogation purposes in POW camps.

The general, long term goal of the CIA was to find out whether or not mind control could be achieved through the use of a precise, external, electromagnetic beam. The electrical activity of the brain operates within the range of 100 hertz frequency. This spectrum is called ELF or Extremely Low Frequency range. ELF waves carry very little ionizing radiation and very low heat, and therefore do not manifest gross, observable physical effects on living organisms. Published Soviet experiments with ELFs reveal that there was a marked increase in psychiatric and central nervous system disorders and symptoms of stress for sailors working close to ELF generators.

In the mid-1970s, American interest in combining EMR techniques with hypnosis was very prominent. Plans were on file to develop these techniques through experiments on human volunteers. The spoken word of the hypnotist could be conveyed by modulated electromagnetic energy directly into the subconscious parts of the human brain without employing any technical devices for receiving or transacting the messages and without the person exposed to such influence having a chance to control the information input consciously.

In California, it was discovered by Dr. Adey that animal brain waves could be altered directly by ELF fields. It was found that monkey brains would fall in phase with ELF waves. These waves could easily pass through the skull, which normally protected the central nervous system from outside influence.

In San Leandro, Dr. Elizabeth Rauscher, director of Technic Research Laboratory, has been doing ELF/brain research with human subjects for some time. One of the frequencies produces nausea for more than an hour. Another frequency, she calls it the marijuana frequency, gets people laughing. “Give me the money and three months,”she says, “and I’ll be able to affect the behavior of eighty percent of the people in this town without their knowing it.”

In the past, the Soviet Union has invested large sums of time and money investigating microwaves. In 1952, while the Cold War was showing no signs of thawing, there was a secret meeting at the Sandia Corporation in New Mexico between U.S. and Soviet scientists involving the exchange of information regarding the biological hazards and safety levels of EMR. The Soviets possessed the greater preponderance of information, and the American scientists were unwilling to take it seriously. In subsequent meetings, the Soviet scientists continued to stress the seriousness of the risks, while American scientists downplayed their importance. Shortly after the last Sandia meeting, the Soviets began directing a microwave beam at the U.S. embassy in Moscow, using embassy workers as guinea pigs for low-level EMR experiments. Washington, D.C. was oddly quiescent, regarding the Moscow embassy bombardment. Discovered in 1962, the Moscow signal was investigated by the CIA, which hired a consultant, Milton Zaret, and code named the research Project Pandora. According to Zaret, the Moscow signal was composed of several frequencies, and was focussed precisely upon the Ambassador’s office. The intensity of the bombardment was not made public, but when the State Department finally admitted the existence of the signal, it announced that it was fairly low.

There was consensus among Soviet EMR researchers that a beam such as the Moscow signal was destined to produced blurred vision and loss of mental concentration. The Boston Globe reported that the American ambassador had not only developed a leukemia-like blood disease, but also suffered from bleeding eyes and chronic headaches. Under the CIA’s Project Pandora, monkeys were brought into the embassy and exposed to the Moscow signal; they were found to have developed blood composition anomalies and unusual chromosome counts. Embassy personnel were found to have a 40 percent higher than average white blood cell count. While Operation Pandora’s data gathering proceeded, embassy personnel continued working in the facility and were not informed of the bombardment until 10 years later. Embassy employees were eventually granted a 20 percent hardship allowance for their service in an unhealthful post. Throughout the period of bombardment, the CIA used the opportunity to gather data on psychological and biological effects of the beam on American personnel.

The U.S. government began to examine the affects of the Moscow signal. The job was turned over to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). DARPA is now developing electromagnetic weaponry. The man in charge of the DARPA program, Dr. Jack Verona, is so important and so secretive that he doesn’t even return President George Bush’s telephone calls.

(To be continued.)

By Harry V. Martin and David Caul

Eleventh in a Series

Copyright, Napa Sentinel, 1991

Friday, November 8, 1991

The American public was never informed that the military had planned to develop electromagnetic weapons until 1982, when the revelation appeared in a technical Air Force magazine.

The magazine article stated, “….specifically generated radio-frequency radiation (RFR) fields may pose powerful and revolutionary anti-personnel military trends.” The article indicated that that it would be very easy to use electromagnetic fields to disrupt the human brain because the brain, itself, was an electrically mediated organ. Iftfurther indicated that a rapidly scanning RFR system would have a stunning or killing capability over a large area. The system was developable.

Navy Captain Dr. Paul E. Taylor read a paper at the Air University Center for Aerospace Doctrine, Research and Education, at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. Dr. Taylor was responsible for the Navy’s Radiation Laboratory and had been studying radiation effects on humans. In his paper, Dr. Taylor stated, “The ability of individuals to function (as soldiers) could be degraded to such a point that would be combat ineffective.” The system was so sophisticated that it employed microwaves and millimeter waves and was transportable by a large truck.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in the South Bay, are working on the development of a “brain bomb”. A bomb could be dropped in the middle of a battlefield which would produce microwaves, incapacitating the minds of soldiers within a circumscribed area.

Applications of microwave technology in espionage were available for over 25 years. In a meeting in Berkeley of the American Association for the Advancement of Science as early as 1965, Professor J. Anthony Deutsch of New York University, provided an important segment of research in the field of memory control. In layman terms, Professor Deutsch indicated that the mind is a transmitter and if too much information is received, like too many vehicles on a crowded freeway, the brain ceases to transmit. The Professor indicated that an excess of acetyl choline in the brain can interfere with the memory process and control. He indicated excess amounts of acetyl choline can be artificially produced, through both the administration of drugs or through the use of radio waves. The process is called Electronic Dissolution of Memory (EDOM). The memory transmission can be stopped for as long as the radio signal continues.

As a result, the awareness of the person skips over those minutes during which he is subjected to the radio signal. Memory is distorted, and time-orientation is destroyed.

According to Lincoln Lawrence, author of Were We Controlled, EDOM is now operational. “There is already in use a small EDOM generator/transmitter which can be concealed on the body of the person. Contact with this person, a casual handshake or even just a touch, transmits a tiny electronic charge plus an ultra-sonic signal tone which for a short period will disturb the time-orientation of the person affected….it can be a potent weapon for hopelessly confusing evidence in the investigation of a crime.”

Thirty years ago, Allen Frey discovered that microwaves of 300 to 3000 megahertz could be “heard” by people, even if they were deaf, if pulsed at a certain rate. Appearing to be originating just in back of the head, the sound boomed, clicked, hissed or buzzed, depending upon the frequency. Later research has shown that the perception of the waves take place just in front of the ears. The microwaves causes pressure waves in the brain tissue, and this phenomenon vibrates the sound receptors in the inner ear through the bone structure. Some microwaves are capable of directly stimulating the nerve cells of the auditory pathways. This has been confirmed with experiments with rats, in which the sound registers 120 decibels, which is equal to the volume of a nearby jet during takeoff. Aside from having the capability of causing pain and preventing auditory communication, a more subtle effect was demonstrated at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research by Dr. Joseph C. Sharp. Dr. Sharp, himself, was the subject of an experiment in which pulsed microwave audiograms, or the microwave analog of the sound vibrations of spoken words, were delivered to his brain in such a way that he was able to understand the words that were spoken. Military and undercover uses of such a device might include driving a subject crazy with inner voices in order to discredit him, or conveying undetectable instructions to a programmed assassin.

But the technology has been carried even a step further. It has been demonstrated by Dr. Ross Adey that microwaves can be used to directly bring about changes in the electrical patterns of different parts of the brain. His experiments showed that he could achieve the same mind control over animals as Dr. Delgado did in the bull incident. Dr. Delgado used brain implants in his animals, Dr. Adey used microwave devices without preconditioning. He made animals act and look like electronic toys.

(Conclusion next week.)

Mind control origins found in Nazi Germany

By Harry V. Martin and David Caul

Twelfth in a Series

Copyright, Napa Sentinel, 1991

Tuesday, November 19, 1991

At the conclusion of World War Two, American investigators learned that Nazi doctors at the Dachau concentration camp in Germany had been conducting mind control experiments on inmates. They experimented with hypnosis and with the drug mescaline.

Mescaline is a quasi-synthetic extract of the peyote cactus, and is very similar to LSD in the hallucinations which it produces. Though they did not achieve the degree of success they had desired, the SS interrogators in conjunction with the Dachau doctors were able to extract the most intimate secrets from the prisoners when the inmates were given very high doses of mescaline.

There were fatal mind control experiments conducted at Auschwitz. The experiments there were described by one informant as “brainwashing with chemicals”. The informant said the Gestapo wasn’t satisfied with extracting information by torture. “So the next question was, why don’t we do it like the Russians, who have been able to get confessions of guilt at their show trials?” They tried various barbiturates and morphine derivatives. After prisoners were fed a coffee-like substance, two of them died in the night and others died later.

The Dachau mescaline experiments were written up in a lengthy report issued by the U.S. Naval Technical Mission, whose job it was at the conclusion of the war to scour all of Europe for every shred of industrial and scientific material that had been produced by the Third Reich. It was as a result of this report that the U.S. Navy became interested in mescaline as an interrogation tool. The Navy initiated Project Chatter in 1947, the same year the Central Intelligence Agency was formed. The Chatter format included developing methods for acquiring information from people against their will, but without inflicting harm or pain.

At the conclusion of the war, the OSS was designated as the investigative unit for the International Military Tribunal, which was to become known as the Nuremberg Trials. The purpose of Nuremberg was to try the principal Nazi leaders. Some Nazis were on trial for their experiments, and the U.S. was using its own “truth drugs” on these principal Nazi prisoners, namely Goring, Ribbentrop, Speer and eight others. The Justice in charge of the tribunal had given the OSS permission to use the drugs.

The Dachau doctors who performed the mescaline experiments also were involved in aviation medicine. The aviation experiments at Dachau fascinated Heinrich Himmler. Himmler followed the progress of the tests, studied their findings and often suggested improvements. The Germans had a keen interest in several medical problems in the field of flying, they were interested in preventing pilots from slowly becoming unconscious as a result of breathing the thin air of the high altitudes and there was interest in enhancing night vision.

The main research in this area was at the Institute of Aviation in Munich, which had excellent laboratories. The experiments in relationship to the Institute were conducted at Dachau. Inmates had been immersed in tubs of ice water with instruments placed in their orifices in order to monitor their painful deaths. Dr. Hubertus Strughold, who ran the German aviation medicine team, confirmed that he had heard humans were used for the Dachau experiments. Hidden in a cave in Hallein were files recording the Dachau experiments.

On May 15, 1941, Dr. Sigmund Rascher wrote a letter to Himmler requesting permission to use the Dachau inmates for experiments on the physiology of high altitudes. Rascher lamented the fact that no such experiments have been done using human subjects. “The experiments are very dangerous and we cannot attract volunteers,” he told Himmler. His request was approved.

Dachau was filled with Communists and Social Democrats, Jews, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Gypsies, clergymen, homosexuals, and people critical of the Nazi government. Upon entering Dachau, prisoners lost all legal status, their hair was shaved off, all their possessions confiscated, they were poorly fed, and they were used as slaves for both the corporations and the government. The SS guards were brutal and sadistic. The idea to test subjects at Dachau was really the brain child of Erich Hippke, chief surgeon of the Luftwaffe.

Between March and August of 1942 extensive experiments were conducted at Dachau regarding the limits of human endurance at high altitudes. These experiments were conducted for the benefit of the German Air Force. The experiments took place in a low-pressure chamber in which altitudes of up to 68,000 feet could be simulated. The subjects were placed in the chamber and the altitude was raised, many inmates died as a result. The survivors often suffered serious injury. One witness at the Nuremberg trails, Anton Pacholegg, who was sent to Dachau in 1942, gave an eyewitness account of the typical pressure test:

“The Luftwaffe delivered a cabinet constructed of wood and metal. It was possible in the cabinet to either decrease or increase the air pressure. You could observe through a little window the reaction of the subject inside the chamber. The purpose of these experiments was to test human energy and the subject’s capacity…to take large amounts of pure oxygen, and then to test his reaction to a gradual decrease in oxygen. I have personally seen through the observation window of the chamber when a prisoner inside would stand a vacuum until his lungs ruptured. Some experiments gave men such pressure in their heads that they would go mad and pull out their hair in an effort to relieve the pressure. They would tear their heads and face with their fingers and nails in an attempt to maim themselves in their madness. They would beat the walls with their hands and head and scream in an effort to relieve pressure in their eardrums. These cases of extreme vacuums generally ended in the death of the subjects.” The former prisoner also testified, “An extreme experiment was so certain to result in death that in many instances the chamber was used for routine execution purposes rather than an experiment.” A minimum 200 prisoners were known to have died in these experiments.

The doctors directly involved with the research held very high positions: Karl Brandt was Hitler’s personal doctor; Oskar Schroeder was the Chief of the Medical Services of the Luftwaffe; Karl Gebhardt was Chief Surgeon on the Staff of the Reich Physician SS and Police and German Red Cross President; Joachim Mrugowsky was Chief of the Hygienic Institute of the Waffen SS; Helmut Poppendick was a senior colonel in the SS and Chief of the Personal Staff of the Reich Physicians SS and Police; Siegfried Ruff was Director of the Department of Aviation Medicine.

The first human guinea pig was a 37 year old Jew in good health. Himmler invited 40 top Luftwaffe officers to view a movie of an inmate dying in the pressure chamber. After the pressure chamber tests, the cold treatment experiments began. The experiments consisted of immersing inmates in freezing water while their vital signs were monitored. The goal was to discover the cause of death. Heart failure was the answer. An inmate described the procedures:

“The basins were filled with water and ice was added until the water measured 37.4 F and the experimental subjects were either dressed in a flying suit or were placed in the water naked. The temperature was measured rectally and through the stomach. The lowering of the body temperature to 32 degrees was terrible for experimental subjects. At 32 degrees the subject lost consciousness. They were frozen to 25 degrees. The worst experiment was performed on two Russian officer POWs. They were placed in the basin naked. Hour after hour passed, and while usually after a short time, 60 minutes, freezing had set in, these two Russians were still conscious after two hours. After the third hour one Russian told the other, ‘Comrade, tell that officer to shoot us.’ The other replied, ‘Don’t expect any mercy from this Fascist dog.’ Then they shook hands and said goodbye. The experiment lasted at least five hours until death occurred.

Dry freezing experiments were also carried out a Dachau. One subject was put outdoors on a stretcher at night when it was extremely cold. While covered with a linen sheet, a bucket of cold water was poured over him every hour. He was kept outdoors undersub-freezing conditions. In subsequent experiments, subjects were simply left outside naked in a court under freezing conditions for hours. Himmler gave permission to move the experiments to Auschwitz, because it was more private and because the subjects of the experiment would howl all night as they froze. The physical pain of freezing was terrible. The subjects died by inches, heartbeat became totally irregular, breathing difficulties and lung endema resulted, hands and feet became frozen white.”

As the Germans began to lose the war, the aviation doctors began too keep their names from appearing in Himmler’s files for fear of future recriminations.

(To be concluded Friday.)

America made it to the moon with Dachau research

By Harry V. Martin and David Caul

Last of a Thirteen Part Series

Copyright, Napa Sentinel, 1991

Friday, November 22, 1991

The Nazi doctors who experimented on the inmates of prison camps during World War Two were tried for murder at the Nuremberg Tribunal. The accused were educated, trained physicians, they did not kill in anger or in malice, they were creating a science of death.

Ironically, in 1933, the Nazi’s passed a law for the protection of animals. The law cited the prevention of cruelty and indifference to animals as one of the highest moral values of a people, animal experimentation was unthinkable, but human experimentations were acceptable. The victims of the crime of these doctors numbered into the thousands.

In 1953, while the Central Intelligence Agency was still conducting mind control and behavior modification on unwitting humans in this country, the United States signed the Nuremberg Code, a code born out of the ashes of war and human suffering. The document was a solemn promise never to tolerate such human atrocities again. The Code maintains three fundamental principles:

The subjects of any experimentation must be volunteers who thoroughly understand the purpose and the dangers of the experiments. They must be free to give consent and the consent must be without pressure and they must be free to quit the experiments at any time.

The experiments must be likely to yield knowledge which is valuable to everyone. The knowledge must be such that it could not be gained in any other way.

The experiments must be conducted by only the most competent doctors, and they must exercise extreme care.

The Nazi aviation experiments met none of these conditions. Most inmates at Dachau knew that the experiments in the pressure chamber were fatal. From the very beginning, control of the experiments was largely in the hands of the SS, which was later judged to be a criminal organization by the Nuremberg Tribunal.

Despite our lessons from Nuremberg and the death camps, the CIA, U.S. Navy and the U.S. Army Chemical Corps targeted specific groups of people for experimentation who were not able to resist, prisoners, mental patients, foreigners, ethnic minorities, sex deviants, the terminally ill, children and U.S. military personnel and prisoners of war. They violated the Nuremberg Code for conducting and subsidizing experiments on unwitting citizens. The CIA began its mind control projects in 1953, the very year that the U.S. signed the Nuremberg Code and pledged with the international community of nations to respect basic human rights and to prohibit experimentation on captive populations without full and free consent.

Dr. Cameron, a CIA operative, was one of the worst offenders against the Code, yet he was a member of the Nuremberg Tribunal, with full knowledge of its testimony. In 1973, a three judge court in Michigan ruled, “…experimental psychosurgery, which is irreversible and intrusive, often leads to the blunting of emotions, the deadening of memory, the reduction of affect, and limits the ability to generate new ideas. Its potential for injury to the creativity of the individual is great and can infringe on the right of the individual to be free from interference with his mental process.

“The state’s interest in performing psychosurgery and the legal ability of the involuntarily detained mental patient to give consent, must bow to the First Amendment, which protects the generation and free flow of ideas from unwarranted interference with one’s mental processes.” Citing the Nuremberg Code, the court found that “the very nature of the subject’s incarceration diminishes the capacity to consent to psychosurgery.” In 1973, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts enacted regulations which would require informed written consent from voluntary patients before electroshock treatment could be performed.

Senator Sam Ervin’s Committee lashed out bitterly at the mind control and behavior modification experiments and ordered them discontinued, they were not. But the New England Journal of Medicine states, that the consent provisions are “no more than an elaborate ritual.” They called it “a device that when the subject is uneducated and uncomprehending, confers no more than a semblance of propriety on human experimentation.”

The Nuremberg Tribunal brought to light that some of the most respected figures in the medical profession were involved in the vast crime network of the SS. Only 23 persons were charged with criminal activity in this area, despite the fact that hundreds of medical personnel were involved. The defendants were charged with crimes against humanity. They were found guilty of planning and executing experiments on humans without their consent, in a cruel and brutal manner which involved severe torture, deliberate murder and with the full knowledge of the gravity of their deeds. Only seven of the defendants were sentenced to death and hanged, others received life sentences. Five who were involved in the experiments were not tried. Ernest Grawitz committed suicide, Carl Clauberg was tried in the Soviet Union, Josef Mengele escaped to South America and was later captured by Israeli agents, Horst Schumann disappeared and Siegmund Rascher was executed by Himmler.

There were 200 German medical doctors conducting these medical experiments. Most of these doctors were friends of the United States before the war, and despite their inhuman experiments, the U.S. attempted to rebuild a relationship with them after the war. The knowledge the Germans had accumulated at the expense of human life and suffering, was considered a “booty of war”, by the Americans and the Russians.The Americans tracked down Dr. Strughold, the aviation doctor who was in charge of the Dachau experiments. With full knowledge that the experiments were conducted on captive humans, the U.S. recruited the doctors to work for them. General Dwight D. Eisenhower gave his personal approval to exploit the work and research of the Nazi’s in the death camps.

Within weeks of Eisenhower’s order, many of these notorious doctors were working for the U.S. Army at Heidelberg. Army teams scoured Europe for scientific experimental apparatus such as pressure chambers, compressors, G-force machines, giant centrifuges, and electron microscopes. These doctors were wined and dined by the U.S. Army while most of Germany’s post-war citizens virtually starved.

The German doctors were brought to the U.S. and went to work for Project Paperclip. All these doctors had been insulated against war crime charges. The Nuremberg prosecutors were shocked that U.S. authorities were using the German doctors despite their criminal past.

Under the leadership of Strughold, 34 scientists accepted contracts from Project Paperclip, and were moved to Randolph Air Force Base at San Antonio, Texas. The authorization to hire these Nazi scientists came directly for the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The top military brass stated that they wished to exploit these rare minds. Project Paperclip, ironically, would use Nazi doctors to develop methods of interrogating German prisoners of war.

As hostilities began to build after the war between the Americans and the Russians, the U.S. imported as many as 1000 former Nazi scientists.

In 1969, Americans landed on the moon, and two groups of scientist in the control center shared the credit, the rocket team from Peenemunde, Germany, under the leadership of Werner von Braun, these men had perfected the V-2s which were built in the Nordhausen caves where 20,000 slave laborers from prison camp Dora had been worked to death. The second group were the space doctors, lead by 71-year-old Dr. Hubertus Strughold, whose work was pioneered in Experimental Block No. 5 of the Dachau concentration camp and the torture and death of hundreds of inmates. The torture chambers that was used to slowly kill the prisoners of the Nazi’s were the test beds for the apparatus that protected Neil Armstrong from harm, from lack of oxygen, and pressure, when he walked on the moon.

 


Impunity at Home, Rendition Abroad: How Both Parties Made Illegality the American Way of Life

By Alfred W. McCoy

After a decade of fiery public debate and bare-knuckle partisan brawling, the United States has stumbled toward an ad hoc bipartisan compromise over the issue of torture that
rests on two unsustainable policies: impunity at home and rendition abroad.

President Obama has closed the CIA’s “black sites,” its secret prisons where American agents once dirtied their hands with waterboarding and wall slamming. But via rendition — the sending of terrorist suspects to the prisons of countries that torture — and related policies, his administration has outsourced human rights abuse to Afghanistan, Somalia, and elsewhere. In this way, he has avoided the political stigma of torture, while tacitly tolerating such abuses and harvesting whatever intelligence can be gained from them.

This “resolution” of the torture issue may meet the needs of this country’s deeply divided politics. It cannot, however, long satisfy an international community determined to prosecute human rights abuses through universal jurisdiction. It also runs the long-term risk of another sordid torture scandal that will further damage U.S. standing with allies worldwide.

Perfecting a New Form of Torture

The modern American urge to use torture did not, of course, begin on September 12, 2001. It has roots that reach back to the beginning of the Cold War and a human rights policy riven with contradictions. Publicly, Washington opposed torture and led the world in drafting the United Nation’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948 and the Geneva Conventions in 1949. Simultaneously and secretly, however, the Central Intelligence Agency began developing ingenious new torture techniques in contravention of these same international conventions.

From 1950 to 1962, the CIA led a secret research effort to crack the code of human consciousness, a veritable Manhattan project of the mind with two findings foundational to a new form of psychological torture. In the early 1950s, while collaborating with the CIA, famed Canadian psychologist Dr. Donald Hebb discovered that, using goggles, gloves, and earmuffs, he could induce a state akin to psychosis among student volunteers by depriving them of sensory stimulation. Simultaneously, two eminent physicians at Cornell University Medical Center, also working with the Agency, found that the most devastating torture technique used by the KGB, the Soviet secret police, involved simply forcing victims to stand for days at a time, while legs swelled painfully and hallucinations began.

In 1963, after a decade of mind-control research, the CIA codified these findings in a succinct, secret instructional handbook, the KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation manual. It became the basis for a new method of psychological torture disseminated worldwide and within the U.S. intelligence community. Avoiding direct involvement in torture, the CIA instead trained allied agencies to do its dirty work in prisons throughout the Third World, like South Vietnam’s notorious “tiger cages.”

The Korean War added a defensive dimension to this mind-control research. After harsh North Korean psychological torture forced American POWs to accuse their own country of war crimes, President Dwight Eisenhower ordered that any serviceman subject to capture be given resistance training, which the Air Force soon dubbed with the acronym SERE (for survival, evasion, resistance, escape).

Once the Cold War ended in 1990, Washington resumed its advocacy of human rights, ratifying the U.N. Convention Against Torture in 1994, which banned the infliction of “severe” psychological and physical pain. The CIA ended its torture training in the Third World, and the Defense Department recalled Latin American counterinsurgency manuals that contained instructions for using harsh interrogation techniques. On the surface, then, Washington had resolved the tension between its anti-torture principles and its torture practices.

But when President Bill Clinton sent the U.N. Convention to Congress for ratification in 1994, he included language (drafted six years earlier by the Reagan administration) that contained diplomatic “reservations.” In effect, these addenda accepted the banning of physical abuse, but exempted psychological torture.

A year later, when the Clinton administration launched its covert campaign against al-Qaeda, the CIA avoided direct involvement in human rights violations by sending 70 terror suspects to allied nations notorious for physical torture. This practice, called “extraordinary rendition,” had supposedly been banned by the U.N. convention and so a new contradiction between Washington’s human rights principles and its practices was buried like a political land mine ready to detonate with phenomenal force, just 10 years later, in the Abu Ghraib scandal.

Normalizing Torture

Right after his first public address to a shaken nation on September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush gave his White House staff expansive secret orders for the use of harsh interrogation, adding, “I don’t care what the international lawyers say, we are going to kick some ass.”

Soon after, the CIA began opening “black sites” that would in the coming years stretch from Thailand to Poland. It also leased a fleet of executive jets for the rendition of detained terrorist suspects to allied nations, and revived psychological tortures abandoned since the end of the Cold War. Indeed, the agency hired former Air Force psychologists to reverse engineer SERE training techniques, flipping them from defense to offense and thereby creating the psychological tortures that would henceforth travel far under the euphemistic label “enhanced interrogation techniques.”

In a parallel move in late 2002, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld appointed General Geoffrey Miller to head the new prison at Guantanamo, Cuba, and gave him broad authority to develop a total three-phase attack on the sensory receptors, cultural identity, and individual psyches of his new prisoners. After General Miller visited Abu Ghraib prison in September 2003, the U.S. commander for Iraq issued orders for the use of psychological torture in U.S. prisons in that country, including sensory disorientation, self-inflicted pain, and a recent innovation, cultural humiliation through exposure to dogs (which American believed would be psychologically devastating for Arabs). It is no accident that Private Lynndie England, a military guard at Abu Ghraib prison, was famously photographed leading a naked Iraqi detainee leashed like a dog.

Just two months after CBS News broadcast those notorious photos from Abu Ghraib in April 2004, 35% of Americans polled still felt torture was acceptable. Why were so many tolerant of torture?

One partial explanation would be that, in the years after 9/11, the mass media filled screens large and small across America with enticing images of abuse. Amid this torrent of torture simulations, two media icons served to normalize abuse for many Americans — the fantasy of the “ticking time bomb scenario” and the fictional hero of the Fox Television show “24,” counterterror agent Jack Bauer.

In the months after 9/11, Harvard professor Alan Dershowitz launched a multimedia campaign arguing that torture would be necessary in the event U.S. intelligence agents discovered that a terrorist had planted a ticking nuclear bomb in New York’s Times Square. Although this scenario was a fantasy whose sole foundation was an obscure academic philosophy article published back in 1973, such ticking bombs soon enough became a media trope and a persuasive reality for many Americans — particularly thanks to “24,” every segment of which began with an oversized clock ticking menacingly.

In 67 torture scenes during its first five seasons, the show portrayed agent Jack Bauer’s recourse to abuse as timely, effective, and often seductive. By its last broadcast in May 2010, the simple invocation of agent Bauer’s name had become a persuasive argument for torture used by everyone from Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia to ex-President Bill Clinton.

While campaigning for his wife Hillary in the 2008 Democratic presidential primary, Clinton typically cited “24” as a justification for allowing CIA agents, acting outside the law, to torture in extreme emergencies. “When Bauer goes out there on his own and is prepared to live with the consequences,” Clinton told Meet the Press, “it always seems to work better.”

Impunity in America

Such a normalization of “enhanced interrogation techniques” created public support for an impunity achieved by immunizing all those culpable of crimes of torture. During President Obama’s first two years in office, former Vice President Dick Cheney and his daughter Liz made dozens of television appearances accusing his administration of weakening America’s security by investigating CIA interrogators who had used such techniques under Bush.

Ironically, Obama’s assassination of Osama bin Laden in May 2011 provided an opening for neoconservatives to move the nation toward impunity. Forming an a cappella media chorus, former Bush administration officials appeared on television to claim, without any factual basis, that torture had somehow led the Navy SEALs to Bin Laden. Within weeks, Attorney General Eric Holder announced an end to any investigation of harsh CIA interrogations and to the possibility of bringing any of the CIA torturers to court. (Consider it striking, then, that the only “torture” case brought to court by the administration involved a former CIA agent, John Kiriakou, who had leaked the names of some torturers.)

Starting on the 10th anniversary of 9/11, the country took the next step toward full impunity via a radical rewriting of the past. In a memoir published on August 30, 2011, Dick Cheney claimed the CIA’s use of “enhanced interrogation techniques” on an al-Qaeda leader named Abu Zubaydah had turned this hardened terrorist into a “fount of information” and saved “thousands of lives.”

Just two weeks later, on September 12, 2011, former FBI counterterror agent Ali Soufan released his own memoirs, stating that he was the one who started the interrogation of Abu Zubaydah back in 2002, using empathetic, non-torture techniques that quickly gained “important actionable intelligence” about “the role of KSM [Khalid Sheikh Mohammed] as the mastermind of the 9/11 attacks.”

Angered by the FBI’s success, CIA director George Tenet dispatched his own interrogators from Washington led by Dr. James Mitchell, the former SERE psychologist who had developed the agency’s harsh “enhanced techniques.” As the CIA team moved up the “force continuum” from “low-level sleep deprivation” to nudity, noise barrage, and the use of a claustrophobic confinement box, Dr. Mitchell’s harsh methods got “no information.”

By contrast, at each step in this escalating abuse, Ali Soufan was brought back for more quiet questioning in Arabic that coaxed out all the valuable intelligence Zubaydah had to offer. The results of this ad hoc scientific test were blindingly clear: FBI empathy was consistently effective, while CIA coercion proved counterproductive.

But this fundamental yet fragile truth has been obscured by CIA censorship and neoconservative casuistry. Cheney’s secondhand account completely omitted the FBI presence. Moreover, the CIA demanded 181 pages of excisions from Ali Soufan’s memoirs that reduced his chapters about this interrogation experience to a maze of blackened lines no regular reader can understand.

The agency’s attempt to rewrite the past has continued into the present. Just last April, Jose Rodriguez, former chief of CIA Clandestine Services, published his uncensored memoirs under the provocative title Hard Measures: How Aggressive C.I.A. Actions after 9/11 Saved American Lives. In a promotional television interview, he called FBI claims of success with empathetic methods “bullshit.”

With the past largely rewritten to assure Americans that the CIA’s “enhanced interrogation” had worked, the perpetrators of torture were home free and the process of impunity and immunity established for future use.

Rendition Under Obama

Apart from these Republican pressures, President Obama’s own aggressive views on national security have contributed to an undeniable continuity with many of his predecessor’s most controversial policies. Not only has he preserved the controversial military commissions at Guantanamo and fought the courts to block civil suits against torture perpetrators, he has, above all, authorized continuing CIA rendition flights.

During the 2008 presidential campaign, Obama went beyond any other candidate in offering unqualified opposition to both direct and indirect U.S. involvement in torture. “We have to be clear and unequivocal. We do not torture, period,” he said, adding, “That will be my position as president. That includes, by the way, renditions.”

Only days after his January 2009 inauguration, Obama issued a dramatic executive order ending the CIA’s coercive techniques, but it turned out to include a large loophole that preserved the agency’s role in extraordinary renditions. Amid his order’s ringing rhetoric about compliance with the Geneva conventions and assuring “humane treatment of individuals in United States custody,” the president issued a clear and unequivocal order that “the CIA shall close as expeditiously as possible any detention facilities that it currently operates and shall not operate any such detention facility in the future.” But when the CIA’s counsel objected that this blanket prohibition would also “take us out of the rendition business,” Obama added a footnote with a small but significant qualification: “The terms ‘detention facilities’ and ‘detention facility’ in… this order do not refer to facilities used only to hold people on a short-term, transitory basis.” Through the slippery legalese of this definition, Obama thus allowed the CIA continue its rendition flights of terror suspects to allied nations for possible torture.

Moreover, in February 2009, Obama’s incoming CIA director Leon Panetta announced that the agency would indeed continue the practice “in renditions where we returned an individual to the jurisdiction of another country, and they exercised their rights… to prosecute him under their laws. I think,” he added, ignoring the U.N. anti-torture convention’s strict conditions for this practice, “that is an appropriate use of rendition.”

As the CIA expanded covert operations inside Somalia under Obama, its renditions of terror suspects from neighboring East African nations continued just as they had under Bush. In July 2009, for example, Kenyan police snatched an al-Qaeda suspect, Ahmed Abdullahi Hassan, from a Nairobi slum and delivered him to that city’s airport for a CIA flight to Mogadishu. There he joined dozens of prisoners grabbed off the streets of Kenya inside “The Hole” — a filthy underground prison buried in the windowless basement of Somalia’s National Security Agency. While Somali guards (paid for with U.S. funds) ran the prison, CIA operatives, reported the Nation’s Jeremy Scahill, have open access for extended interrogation.

Obama also allowed the continuation of a policy adopted after the Abu Ghraib scandal: outsourcing incarceration to local allies in Afghanistan and Iraq while ignoring human rights abuses there. Although the U.S. military received 1,365 reports about the torture of detainees by Iraqi forces between May 2004 and December 2009, a period that included Obama’s first full year in office, American officers refused to take action, even though the abuses reported were often extreme.

Simultaneously, Washington’s Afghan allies increasingly turned to torture after the Abu Ghraib scandal prompted U.S. officials to transfer most interrogation to local authorities. After interviewing 324 detainees held by Afghanistan’s National Directorate of Security (NDS) in 2011, the U.N. found that “torture is practiced systematically in a number of NDS detention facilities throughout Afghanistan.” At the Directorate’s prison in Kandahar one interrogator told a detainee before starting to torture him, “You should confess what you have done in the past as Taliban; even stones confess here.”

Although such reports prompted both British and Canadian forces to curtail prisoner transfers, the U.S. military continues to turn over detainees to Afghan authorities — a policy that, commented the New York Times, “raises serious questions about potential complicity of American officials.”

How to Unclog the System of Justice One Drone at a Time

After a decade of intense public debate over torture, in the last two years the United States has arrived at a questionable default political compromise: impunity at home, rendition abroad.

This resolution does not bode well for future U.S. leadership of an international community determined to end the scourge of torture. Italy’s prosecution of two-dozen CIA agents for rendition in 2009, Poland’s recent indictment of its former security chief for facilitating a CIA black site, and Britain’s ongoing criminal investigation of intelligence officials who collaborated with alleged torture at Guantanamo are harbingers of continuing pressures on the U.S. to comply with international standards for human rights.

Meanwhile, unchecked by any domestic or international sanction, Washington has slid down torture’s slippery slope to find, just as the French did in Algeria during the 1950s, that at its bottom lies the moral abyss of extrajudicial execution. The systematic French torture of thousands during the Battle of Algiers in 1957 also generated over 3,000 “summary executions” to insure, as one French general put it, that “the machine of justice” not be “clogged with cases.”

In an eerie parallel, Washington has reacted to the torture scandals of the Bush era by generally forgoing arrests and opting for no-fuss aerial assassinations. From 2005 to 2012, U.S. drone killings inside Pakistan rose from zero to a total of 2,400 (and still going up) — a figure disturbingly close to those 3,000 French assassinations in Algeria. In addition, it has now been revealed that the president himself regularly orders specific assassinations by drone in Pakistan, Yemen, and Somalia off a secret “kill list.” Simultaneously, his administration has taken just one terror suspect into U.S. custody and has not added any new prisoners to Guantanamo, thereby avoiding any more clogging of the machinery of American justice.

Absent any searching inquiry or binding reforms, assassination is now the everyday American way of war while extraordinary renditions remain a tool of state. Make no mistake: some future torture scandal is sure to arise from another iconic dungeon in the dismal, ever-lengthening historical procession leading from the “tiger cages” of South Vietnam to “the salt pit” in Afghanistan and “The Hole” in Somalia. Next time, the world might not be so forgiving. Next time, with those images from Abu Ghraib prison etched in human memory, the damage to America’s moral authority as world leader could prove even more deep and lasting.

Alfred W. McCoy is professor of history at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, a TomDispatch regular, and author most recently of the book, Torture and Impunity: The U.S. Doctrine of Coercive Interrogation (University of Wisconsin, 2012) which explores the American experience of torture during the past decade. Previous books include: A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation, from the Cold War to the War on Terror (American Empire Project); Policing America’s Empire: The United States, the Philippines, and the Rise of the Surveillance State, and The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade. He has also convened the “Empires in Transition” project, a global working group of 140 historians from universities on four continents. The results of their first meetings were published as Colonial Crucible: Empire in the Making of the Modern American State.


Inside the CIA’s secret Thai prison

 

By Richard S Ehrlich –read original article here

BANGKOK – The United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) appears to have used Bangkok’s former Don Muang International Airport as a secret prison to torture a suspected Muslim terrorist, the first time a specific location has ever been described within Thailand, according to statements by the Libyan who was allegedly held there.

It was impossible to immediately confirm Abdel Hakim Belhaj’s allegations of being “hung”, “injected” and refrigerated with “ice” at the airport, but if true it is the first description of any site in Thailand pinpointed by a prisoner held by the CIA.

Thai officials in this Buddhist-majority Southeast Asian country have consistently denied knowledge of any CIA secret prison.

However, a secret CIA prison’s existence – linked to waterboarding of suspects in Thailand two years earlier in 2002 – has been mentioned in US congressional testimony and was first broken by a Washington Post report. The facility is frequently cited in international media reports as one of the CIA’s secret rendition sites.

Thailand is one of the US’s major non-North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) allies, a distinction it earned in 2003 through its cooperation with Washington’s global “war on terror”.

London’s Guardian newspaper reported on September 5 that Britain’s MI6 intelligence agency helped the CIA in March 2004 arrest Belhaj, who is now a powerful commander in Tripoli with the anti-Muammar Gaddafi transitional government.

“Belhaj was detained by the CIA in Thailand in 2004 following an MI6 tip-off, allegedly tortured, then flown to Tripoli, where he says he suffered years of abuse in one of Muammar Gaddafi’s prisons,” the Guardian reported.

“MI6 had been able to tell the CIA of his whereabouts, after his associates informed British diplomats in Malaysia that he wished to claim asylum in the UK. Belhaj was then allowed to board a flight for London and abducted when the plane called at Bangkok,” the Guardian report said.

In 2004, all international flights in and out of Bangkok – including Belhaj’s supposed British Airways flight – used only Don Muang International Airport. In Malaysia, he had bought “a ticket to London via Bangkok”, the paper said.

“I got on the plane,” Belhaj said in an interview, believing the flight would stopover for refueling in Bangkok and that he would be welcomed in London and given political asylum.

“Belhaj was captured by CIA officers, in cooperation with Thai authorities, inside Bangkok airport … He says he was tortured at a site in the airport grounds,” the Guardian said.

“I was injected with something, hung from a wall by my arms and legs and put in a container surrounded by ice,” he told the Guardian, describing his alleged treatment at Bangkok’s international airport by two people he described as CIA agents.

“They did not let me sleep, and there was noise all the time. And then they sent me to my enemy,” Belhaj said, referring to his secret rendition flight by the CIA from Thailand to then Gaddafi-led Libya.

“My wife was also beaten while we were in Thailand, when I was held by the CIA,” Belhaj said in a similar interview with London’s Daily Mail, published on September 7. “They hit me, they tied me up and took me to a secret prison in Bangkok airport. I was hanged on the wall there, and injected in my back until I fell into a coma,” he claimed.

Emphasizing how the CIA allegedly tortured him in Bangkok, Belhaj said he was put “into custody of the CIA, who has a secret prison at the airport”, according to an interview in early September with the French newspaper Le Monde. “There, I was interrogated for several days.”

Asked by Le Monde if he was “tortured”, he replied: “Yes, I was suspended from the ceiling, I was attached [to it], and I was plunged into ice water. After several days, they put me on an airplane for Libya,” where he was imprisoned until his release in 2010.

Belhaj said he “founded, with a group of young people in the 1980s, the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group. We had no other choice but armed combat. The Gaddafi regime wanted to destroy us.

“I thus left my country for Saudi Arabia in 1988 and, from there, I went to Afghanistan,” during the country’s last days under the Soviet Union’s 10-year occupation which ended in 1989, after which the Moscow-backed Najibullah regime was left to defend itself.

“When the Afghan mujahideen took Kabul in 1992, I left the country,” he said, referring to the war-torn nation just before the Taliban took control.

Today, he is “under the authority of the [Libya’s] Transitional National Council, its executive body, and its Ministry of Defense,” he said. “There is nothing to fear, we are not al-Qaeda. I never was,” he told Le Monde.

Belhaj, known by his nom de guerre, Abdullah al-Sadiq, was named in at least two of the tens of thousands of documents recently discovered in Gaddafi’s External Security buildings in the Libyan capital after NATO-backed rebels seized control.

Referring to Belhaj, his then pregnant wife, and their upcoming flight in March 2004 from Malaysia to Thailand, the documents confirm he was to be seized by the US.

“We are planning to arrange to take control of the pair in Bangkok and place them on our aircraft for a flight to your country,” the Americans told Gaddafi’s government in March 2004, the Associated Press reported on September 3.

CIA spokeswoman Jennifer Youngblood declined to comment on specific allegations related to the documents.

“It can’t come as a surprise that the Central Intelligence Agency works with foreign governments to help protect our country from terrorism and other deadly threats,” Youngblood said, according to AP. “That is exactly what we are expected to do.”

When Belhaj was captured in Bangkok, Don Muang International Airport included a vast public passenger and commercial cargo area, Concorde-capable runways, and an attached Thai air force base.

The sprawling airport’s facilities, warehouses, offices and other units, are next to a busy main highway on the northern edge of Bangkok. Until now, Don Muang had never been publicly named as a CIA torture site.

Many analysts suspected the US used facilities at U-Tapao air base two hours outside of Bangkok, where US planes frequently land to refuel on their route to Afghanistan. Belhaj made no mention of being driven in a vehicle after he arrived on the commercial flight at Bangkok’s Don Muang airport.

It is unclear if any Thai officials knew that the CIA may have used the airport as an alleged torture site, or if the Americans may have kept their activities secret from the Thais.

Today, Thailand relies on its newer, bigger Suvarnabhumi International Airport which was opened in 2006 on the eastern outskirts of Bangkok. Don Muang airport has since been reduced to handling some domestic and charter flights, and is now being considered as a place to hold conventions or other events in its huge vacant buildings.

Testimony by US officials and other earlier investigations confirmed the CIA secretly waterboarded other suspects in Thailand in 2002, two years before Belhaj’s ordeal in Bangkok.

At that time, the CIA secretly waterboarded suspected al-Qaeda facilitator Abu Zubaydah and USS Cole bombing plotter Abd al-Rahim al-Nashiri in Thailand, but the exact locations of those interrogations have never been made public.

In 2005, the CIA’s former head Porter Gross and his top aide reportedly agreed to destroy videotapes kept in Bangkok documenting the agency’s harsh interrogation of terror suspects, according to internal CIA e-mails.

Richard S Ehrlich is a Bangkok-based journalist from San Francisco, California. He has reported news from Asia since 1978 and is co-author of the non-fiction book of investigative journalism, Hello My Big Big Honey! Love Letters to Bangkok Bar Girls and Their Revealing Interviews. His website is http://www.asia-correspondent.110mb.com

(Copyright 2011 Richard Ehrlich)

 


Inside Romania’s secret CIA prison

CBS NEWS WASHINGTON – In northern Bucharest, in a busy residential neighborhood minutes from the heart of the capital city, is a secret the Romanian government has long tried to protect.

For years, the CIA used a government building — codenamed “Bright Light” — as a makeshift prison for its most valuable detainees. There it held al Qaeda operatives Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the mastermind of 9/11, and others in a basement prison before they were ultimately transferred to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, in 2006, according to former U.S. intelligence officials familiar with the location and inner workings of the prison.

The existence of a CIA prison in Romania has been widely reported, but its location has never been made public. The Associated Press and German public television ARD located the former prison and learned details of the facility where harsh interrogation tactics were used. ARD’s program on the CIA prison is set to air Thursday.

The Romanian prison was part of a network of so-called black sites that the CIA operated and controlled overseas in Thailand, Lithuania and Poland. All the prisons were closed by May 2006, and the CIA’s detention and interrogation program ended in 2009.

Unlike the CIA’s facility in Lithuania’s countryside or the one hidden in a Polish military installation, the CIA’s prison in Romania was not in a remote location. It was hidden in plain sight, a couple blocks off a major boulevard on a street lined with trees and homes, along busy train tracks.

The building is used as the National Registry Office for Classified Information, which is also known as ORNISS. Classified information from NATO and the European Union is stored there. Former intelligence officials both described the location of the prison and identified pictures of the building.

In an interview at the building in November, senior ORNISS official Adrian Camarasan said the basement is one of the most secure rooms in all of Romania. But he said Americans never ran a prison there.

“No, no. Impossible, impossible,” he said in an ARD interview for its “Panorama” news broadcast, as a security official monitored the interview.

The CIA prison opened for business in the fall of 2003, after the CIA decided to empty the black site in Poland, according to former U.S. officials, who spoke on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to discuss the detention program with reporters.

Shuttling detainees into the facility without being seen was relatively easy. After flying into Bucharest, the detainees were brought to the site in vans. CIA operatives then drove down a side road and entered the compound through a rear gate that led to the actual prison.

The detainees could then be unloaded and whisked into the ground floor of the prison and into the basement.

The basement consisted of six prefabricated cells, each with a clock and arrow pointing to Mecca, the officials said. The cells were on springs, keeping them slightly off balance and causing disorientation among some detainees.

The CIA declined to comment on the prison.

During the first month of their detention, the detainees endured sleep deprivation and were doused with water, slapped or forced to stand in painful positions, several former officials said. Waterboarding, the notorious interrogation technique that simulates drowning, was not performed in Romania, they said.

After the initial interrogations, the detainees were treated with care, the officials said. The prisoners received regular dental and medical checkups. The CIA shipped in Halal food to the site from Frankfurt, Germany, the agency’s European center for operations. Halal meat is prepared under religious rules similar to kosher food.

Former U.S. officials said that because the building was a government installation, it provided excellent cover. The prison didn’t need heavy security because area residents knew it was owned by the government. People wouldn’t be inclined to snoop in post-communist Romania, with its extensive security apparatus known for spying on the country’s own citizens.

The National Registry Office for Classified Information, also known as ORNISS, sits in a busy residential neighborhood minutes from the center of Romania’s capital city of Bucharest in this recent photo. (AP)

WASHINGTON – In northern Bucharest, in a busy residential neighborhood minutes from the heart of the capital city, is a secret the Romanian government has long tried to protect.

For years, the CIA used a government building — codenamed “Bright Light” — as a makeshift prison for its most valuable detainees. There it held al Qaeda operatives Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, the mastermind of 9/11, and others in a basement prison before they were ultimately transferred to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, in 2006, according to former U.S. intelligence officials familiar with the location and inner workings of the prison.

The existence of a CIA prison in Romania has been widely reported, but its location has never been made public. The Associated Press and German public television ARD located the former prison and learned details of the facility where harsh interrogation tactics were used. ARD’s program on the CIA prison is set to air Thursday.

 

The Romanian prison was part of a network of so-called black sites that the CIA operated and controlled overseas in Thailand, Lithuania and Poland. All the prisons were closed by May 2006, and the CIA’s detention and interrogation program ended in 2009.

Unlike the CIA’s facility in Lithuania’s countryside or the one hidden in a Polish military installation, the CIA’s prison in Romania was not in a remote location. It was hidden in plain sight, a couple blocks off a major boulevard on a street lined with trees and homes, along busy train tracks.

The building is used as the National Registry Office for Classified Information, which is also known as ORNISS. Classified information from NATO and the European Union is stored there. Former intelligence officials both described the location of the prison and identified pictures of the building.

In an interview at the building in November, senior ORNISS official Adrian Camarasan said the basement is one of the most secure rooms in all of Romania. But he said Americans never ran a prison there.

“No, no. Impossible, impossible,” he said in an ARD interview for its “Panorama” news broadcast, as a security official monitored the interview.

The CIA prison opened for business in the fall of 2003, after the CIA decided to empty the black site in Poland, according to former U.S. officials, who spoke on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to discuss the detention program with reporters.

Shuttling detainees into the facility without being seen was relatively easy. After flying into Bucharest, the detainees were brought to the site in vans. CIA operatives then drove down a side road and entered the compound through a rear gate that led to the actual prison.

The detainees could then be unloaded and whisked into the ground floor of the prison and into the basement.

The basement consisted of six prefabricated cells, each with a clock and arrow pointing to Mecca, the officials said. The cells were on springs, keeping them slightly off balance and causing disorientation among some detainees.

The CIA declined to comment on the prison.

SCHEME OF THE PRISON HERE

During the first month of their detention, the detainees endured sleep deprivation and were doused with water, slapped or forced to stand in painful positions, several former officials said. Waterboarding, the notorious interrogation technique that simulates drowning, was not performed in Romania, they said.

After the initial interrogations, the detainees were treated with care, the officials said. The prisoners received regular dental and medical checkups. The CIA shipped in Halal food to the site from Frankfurt, Germany, the agency’s European center for operations. Halal meat is prepared under religious rules similar to kosher food.

Former U.S. officials said that because the building was a government installation, it provided excellent cover. The prison didn’t need heavy security because area residents knew it was owned by the government. People wouldn’t be inclined to snoop in post-communist Romania, with its extensive security apparatus known for spying on the country’s own citizens.
Human rights activists have urged the Eastern European countries to investigate the roles their governments played in hosting the prisons in which interrogation techniques such as waterboarding were used. Officials from these countries continue to deny these prisons ever existed.

“We know of the criticism, but we have no knowledge of this subject,” Romanian President Traian Basescu said in a September interview with AP.

The CIA has tried to close the book on the detention program, which President Barack Obama ended shortly after taking office.

“That controversy has largely subsided,” the CIA’s top lawyer, Stephen Preston, said at a conference this month.

But details of the prison network continue to trickle out through investigations by international bodies, reporters and human rights groups. “There have been years of official denials,” said Dick Marty, a Swiss lawmaker who led an investigation into the CIA secret prisons for the Council of Europe. “We are at last beginning to learn what really happened in Bucharest.”

During the Council of Europe’s investigation, Romania’s foreign affairs minister assured investigators in a written report that, “No public official or other person acting in an official capacity has been involved in the unacknowledged deprivation of any individual, or transport of any individual while so deprived of their liberty.” That report also described several other government investigations into reports of a secret CIA prison in Romania and said: “No such activities took place on Romanian territory.”

READ THE REST OF THE ARTICLE


US secret prisons in Europe: a “law of silence” among governments

 

SOURCE

Further evidence is emerging of the possible complicity of some European governments in the CIA’s secret detention programme. At a public hearing of experts on Tuesday, Civil Liberties Committee MEPs deplored the lack of cooperation from EU Member States and are preparing a new report.

Hélène Flautre (Greens/EFA, FR), recalled the “serious breaches of human rights, kidnapping, torture, secret detentions, with the complicity of Member States” on which Parliament had sought to shed light until 2007.

Today, “new information has emerged on secret detention sites in Europe (…) there is a great deal of evidence upon which we can build in our work”, said Ms Flautre, who is preparing an own-initiative report. She denounced the “law of silence among governments” on these allegations.

“We regret that those responsible for national inquiries in Denmark, Lithuania, Poland and Romania, who had been invited to the hearing, “could not accept”, she said.

The rampart of state secrecy

“Many new elements have emerged since 2007, and especially in the past two years” said Julia Hall, an Amnesty International counter-terrorism and human rights expert, citing recent developments in Lithuania, Finland, Denmark, Romania, Poland and the UK.

She deplored the refusal of governments to co-operate on the grounds that information was classified as secret, which, she said, was unjustified.

“Speaking of allegations is counterproductive”

“The European Parliament can rely on the evidence that we have obtained”, said Reprieve researcher Crofton Black, adding that “Parliament must recognise that it is useless and counterproductive to describe perfectly demonstrable facts as ‘allegations’. There is a puzzle to be put together, a puzzle whose pieces are scattered among countries”, he said, suggesting that the European institutions contact the European air navigation safety organisation Eurocontrol to obtain data “at the source”. He also stressed that the logistics of the American programme would have required the complicity of private companies.

“Collective responsibility” of Member States

For the time being, “there is no pressure from public opinion” on governments, “so they don’t care”, said Sophie In’t Veld (ALDE, NL). Furthermore, “we concentrate on countries, but I maintain that there is a collective responsibility”, she added, proposing that all Member States should therefore be covered by the future report.

“There is a clear complicity of the [European] authorities”, said Ana Gomes (S&D, PT), adding that in Portugal, the authorities “had either been incompetent and had been derided, or had been in league” with the US authorities. The latter possibility “was the likeliest”, she added. Adam Bodmar, of the Helsinki Foundation, observed that Poland “was in denial” on this issue.

“A follow-up report seems absolutely necessary” in the light of the new evidence, said Michèle Striffler (EPP, FR), adding that “if it is established that Member States cooperated actively, the EU will have to take the necessary measures.

“There have been delays even within our institutions, where there are people who want no progress on the dossier” regretted Carlos Coelho (EPP, PT).

Amrit Singh, a lawyer representing the Open Society Justice Initiative, presented the cases of Messrs El-Masri et Al-Nashiri, victims of CIA rendition and secret detention in Europe, implicating the authorities of Poland, Romania, and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. The second is being held at Guantanamo and “could be sentenced to death by military tribunals that do not respect due process rules”, said Ms Flautre. Ms Singh urged MEPs to “take their responsibility” and respond collectively to ensure that the USA does not single out a country for possible reprisal measures.

Fighting terrorism “saves lives”

“Human rights and freedom are important values (…) but does this mean we must consider individual cases and divulge details of our struggle against terrorism, which saves lives?” said Mirosław Piotrowski (ECR, PL).

In Romania, “many inquiries have been made by MPs and independent media. They have contributed no clarifications, only presumptions”, said Ioan Enciu (S&D, RO).

Background

In 2005, prompted by press reports of CIA activities on European soil, the European Parliament set up a temporary committee of enquiry. Its report, drafted by Claudio Fava, deplored the passivity of certain Member States in the face of the CIA’s illegal operations on their territory and called for an independent inquiry. MEPs pledged to follow up.

In the chair: Juan Fernando López Aguilar (S&D, ES)

 


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